final study guide

final study guide - Class notes General definition of...

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Class notes: General definition of Constructivism o “The fact that every object is constituted as an object of discourse has nothing to do with whether there is a world external to thought… what is denied is not that… objects exist externally to thought, but the rather different assertion that they could constitute themselves as objects outside of any discursive condition of emergence.” o Words do indeed refer to things, and they also constitute the things to which they refer o We don’t invent reality but we organize speech in more or less fanciful ways o Race is a great example Constructivists tell us that race does not refer to something real Race is not a biological fact If there are were no words, there would be no race Vocal instrument we use to separate population so genetic mixing does not take place Race is a social fact Social, cultural, and legal decision for white people to mate with black people Without prior segregation, there would be no races Segregation leads to the cultivation of racism Race does not precede segregation, race is the consequence of segregation o Our discursive organization of the world guides, constrains, enables, and hampers thinking o The nation Nation is a young concept invented 150 years ago o The inter-national Jeremy Benthan invented this term and applied it to international law and international organization Post WWII concept: couldn’t have international organization if we didn’t have the world “international” in our vocabulary. Create it to make sense of things o Power What are we actually referring to when we use the term power o Why do we use these terms to define global organization? Habit! We can’t think outside of the system; these are the words we use They define the “Norms” of proper behavior Not moral behavior, but normal behavior Standards of normal conduct, not standards of morally good conduct Normal behavior is rewarded, abnormal behavior punished o Constructivists believe that speech is the source of these constraints
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European Retrenchment and decolonization o After the two world wars, Europe is destroyed o Decolonization happens quickly following WWII: India, 1947 Indonesia, 1949 Vietnam, 1954 Belgian Congo, 1960 French Colonial Africa, 1960 to 1961 British Colonial Africa, 1960 to 1961 Algeria, 1962 o They win the right to national self-determination Nation o A community that shares a language o Language is the container of a national culture, so people who belong to the same region share a language and a culture o Senegal The Senegal people did not create Senegal, the Europeans did Emerges at some point; somebody says the word Senegal and this nation comes from this pronunciation Outside the framework of habitual European discourse about political organization, “Senegal” does not exist Europe imposed linguistic habits on Africa Stuck with the European construction of the nation state
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This note was uploaded on 02/16/2012 for the course INTL-ST 110 taught by Professor Somebody during the Fall '11 term at Northwestern.

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final study guide - Class notes General definition of...

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