Yocom, Antrho Final Exam Study Guide

Yocom, Antrho Final Exam Study Guide - Tribe Trobriand...

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Tribe Environment Population Category Characteristics Trobriand Islanders Polynesia Community 200-400 Polity 1,000 Chiefdom (simple) High pop density for horticultural climate Subsistence economy = intensive agriculture and fishing Yams – stored for seasons where yams cannot grow Intensification of cultivation led to trade of subsistence products Public ceremonial space in the center of the settlement Dala – economic / political cluster (village) Dala are ranked and their leader’s influence is determined by the success of the dala Kula Voyages – trade / ceremonial voyages Hawaiian Islanders Pacific Ocean Community 300-400 Polity 30,000- 100,000 Chiefdom (complex) Population density = 39 people per square mile Subsistence economy dependant on intensive agriculture Irrigation, short fallow shifting cultivation Fish are main source of protein Problems were managed on a local or family level, but chiefs were important in managing risk and preventing or solving regional conflict. Taro – most important food Inshore fishing, lowland farming, upland foraging Paramount chief, district chief, community chief (chiefs were warriors) Expansionist drive Political economy - redistribution Basseri Iran Community 200-500 Polity 16,000 Chiefdom (complex) Independent pastoralists under a regional polity Economy centers on production of meat and milk from sheep and goats Diet is predominantly based on traded agricultural products Some individuals have small agricultural land Camps form in times of harsh weather, have a distinct leader Oulads are territorial units, membership based on patrilineal decent Economy is based on cyclical migration of tent households in search of pasture for small, independently owned family herds Threats to pastoralist life: 1. Growing population density, 2. Agricultural intensification, 3. Economic integration, political stratification, 4. Developing capitalist economy Inka Empire– Tawantinsuyu The Andes Community ±400 Polity State (archaic) Institutional organizations, religious military bureaucracy Outrageously extensive staple finance system Wealth was based on staple crops
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14,000,000 Conversion of staples into cash, back into staples Large scale administrative centers exists throughout the state Highly developed road system, communication Ayllu – kinship and territorial group Individual communities were largely subsistent Social hierarchy – hereditary elites Government brought an end to intercommunity conflict Brazilian Sharecroppers of Boa Ventura Brazil Community ±300 Polity 80,000,000+ State (agrarian) Peasants live under direct control of landlords Fazenda – large estate, littoral – by the water, sertão – semiarid inland region Intensification of subsistence economy creation of a market-oriented production system severe shortage of agricultural land Sharecroppers survive on subsistence horticulture Household autonomy is essential Dyadic contract and friendship relations: 1. Relations are always dyadic, 2. Short-term exchanges are usually unbalanced, 3. Long-term
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Yocom, Antrho Final Exam Study Guide - Tribe Trobriand...

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