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exam 3 study guide - Chapter 7 Scientific management...

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Chapter 7 Scientific management- emphasizes careful selection and training of workers and supervisory support Motion study- is the science of reducing a task to its basic physical motions Bureaucracy- is a rational and efficient form of organization founded on logic, order, and legitimate authority Hawthorne effect- is the tendency of persons singled out for special attention to perform as expected The human relations movement- suggested that managers using good human relations will achieve productivity Organizational behavior- is the study of individuals and groups in organizations Need- is a physiological or psychological deficiency that a person wants to satisfy Theory x- assumes people dislike work, lack ambition, act irresponsibly, and prefer to be led Theory y- assumes people are willing to work, like responsibility, and are self directed and creative Self fulfilling prophecy- occurs when a person acts in ways that confirm another’s expectations Contingency thinking- tries to match management practices with situational demands Chapter 8 Leadership- is the process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks Power- is the ability to get someone else to do something you want done or to make things happen the way you want Reward power- is the capacity to offer something of value as a means of influencing other people Coercive power- is the capacity to punish or withhold positive outcomes as a means of influencing other people Legitimate power- is the capacity to influence other people by virtue of formal authority, or the rights of office
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Expert power- is the capacity to influence other people because of specialized knowledge Referent power- is the capacity to influence other people because of their desire to identify personally with you Vision- is a clear sense of the future Visionary leadership- brings to the situation a clear sense of the future and an understanding of how to get there Servant leadership- is follower centered and committed to helping others in their work Empowerment- enables others to gain and use decision making power Leadership style- is a recurring pattern of behaviors exhibited by a leader Autocratic style- acts in a unilateral, command and control fashion Human relations style- emphasizes people over task Laissez-faire style- displays a do the best you can and don’t bother me style Democratic style- emphasizes both tasks and people Substitutes for leadership- are factors in the work setting that direct work efforts without the involvement of a leader Authority decision- is made by the leader and then communicated to the group Consultative decision- is made by a leader after receiving information, advice, or opinions from group members Group decision- is made by the group members themselves Charismatic leader- develops special leader follower relationships and inspires followers in extraordinary ways
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