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Unformatted text preview: Study Guide Midterm 2 Brief Overview of Theories • Interwar crisis, 1919-1939 o Fascism o Soviet-style Marxism (Stalinism) o Liberal Reformism o Political Reformism • All these theories claim to do two things: o Makes sense of the past o Guide policy in the future Following WWII • Fascism o Hangs on where previously implanted, but no longer informs action o It lost war so doesn’t have aura of victorious theory • Soviet style Marxism o Influence peaked in 60s (Vietnam) o Labor unrest in Poland, 1970s o Collapse late 1980s (worldwide) • Liberal Reformism o Collective security re-established o Multiplication of IOs, inside and outside the UN o Functionalism and neo-functionalism • Political Realism o Informs “containment” o But containment becomes ideological competition rather than simply power conflict o IOs and economic interdependence I. Political Realism’s record a. Did the League fail? i. No, it was murdered by its mother WARREN G. HARDING 1. President of the United States ii. The Rejection of the Treaty of Versailles by United States 1. The Europeans were confused by the US’s claims a. US wanted to fix the world and take advantage of its victory finally iii. America rejected the League of Nations (its own baby) 1. The United States never joined the League of Nations – leaving it in the hands of a bunch of states that didn’t believe it in the first place iv. US also rejected the defense alliance with France and Great Britain 1. This was absolutely crucial to making everything work 2. Woodrow Wilson went in with the principle of national self-determination and pushed the idea to the French and they accepted it even though they didn’t believe in it – in return for a defensive alliance (Defensive Treaty) a. The US and GB agreed to the treaty creating a tri-lateral defensive treaty 3. The US rejects the defensive treaty and then GB pulls out, leaving the French in their nightmare situation v. This led to a period of FRENCH UNILATERALISM 1. The French insisted on an application of the treaty in order for it to not be applied and show that it was unworkable 2. French invaded in1920 and occupied many cities along the Rhine River – invaded again in 1921 and again in 1923 a. Very warlike situation b. Tried to break Germany up 3. Ruhr and Konrad Adenauer (Becomes the first chancellor of the Western federation of Germany) vi. 1923 1. Fostered a sentiment of German nationalism and in exacerbating German nationalism it fed the rise of fascism 2. The success of fascism, especially in Germany was a direct result of the failure of Treaty of Versailles 3. The failure of the Treaty of Versailles was a direct result of US’s isolationist tactics and their rejection of the Treaty and failure to join the League of Nations vii. Briand-Stresemann normalization outside framework of the League of Nations 1. They worked together and the culmination of their efforts was the creation of the European Confederation in 1929 2. If there is going to be peace in Europe (especially between Germany and...
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This note was uploaded on 02/16/2012 for the course INTL-ST 110 taught by Professor Somebody during the Fall '11 term at Northwestern.
- Fall '11