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Personality - Personality 15:00 BEHAVIORISM(Learning Theory...

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Personality 15:00 BEHAVIORISM : (Learning Theory): Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike, Skinner Basic presupposition (1) All behaviors are product of learning and genetic factors; all behaviors are “habits” (depression is habit, according to behaviorists) (2) Psychological disorders are simply maladaptive learned habits; “the symptom is the disease” (Eysenck) (3) Principal focus is on overt (what you see, what you can observe) behavior (although Skinner viewed thoughts and feelings as “covert” behaviors) The symptom is the disease – to cure disease you just get rid of the symptom. There is no underlying cause – it is what it is Want to make psychoanalysis more scientific. Focus on what you can see Skinner – concept of freedom is wrong & dangerous We can will ourself out of a problem. We need to rearrange environmental circumstances. Cant rely on just will 2 Laws of Learning (1) Classical (respondent) conditioning: response is elicit Pulled out involuntarily from the organism (2) Operant (instrumental) conditioning: response is ____ Produced more or less voluntarily by the organism Classical Condition = the paradigm Condition stimulus, neutral, does not elicit any response by itself Pair condition stimulus with unconditioned stimulus, elicits an automatic biological response Condition stimulus, alone. Now elicits a condition response Lemon-Whistle Demonstration (1) CS no response
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Whistle no response CS + UCS UCR Whistle + lemon slurping CS CR Whistle slurp (replaces UCR) Watson coined term “behaviorism” Classical conditioning + phobia acquisition John B. Watson case of “Little Albert” – repeatedly paired with a white rat (CS) with a very loud noise from a gong (UCS). Scare little Albert. Repair Albert with rat + Albert now scared of rat Little Albert developed a conditioned fear of white rat and other furry objects (dogs, rabbits, Santa clause mask) Personality consists of classical condition Operant (instrumental) conditioning Essentially equivalent to learning by reward Puzzle box studies with cars (Thorndike) On basis of these findings: argued that all learning occurs through trial and error, not insight “Law of effect” = if a response, in the presence of the stimulus, is followed by a satisfying state of affairs, then the bond between stimulus and response will be strengthened Produce behavior after stimulus and its followed by reward and you’re likely to repeat Key concepts: Reinforcement = any stimulus that increases the probability of a response Positive reinforcement – presenting a pleasant stimulus after a response Negative reinforcement – don’t confuse with punishment! – Withdrawing an unpleasant stimulus after a
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