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Research Designs In Psychology

Research Designs In Psychology - 14:39 Why do we need...

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Three Types of Research Designs In Psychology   14:39 Why do we need research designs in the first place? To protect ourselves from being fooled We (humans) are prone to making sense out of nonsense, order of out of disorder. We often perceive relationships among variables that are not actually present. Examples: (1) Pareidolia – seeing meaningful visual patterns in random visual stimuli (2) Apophenia – seeing mental connections among essentially random events conspiracy theories Correlational Designs Measure the extent to which two variables go together Are relevant whenever we hear the words “associated” or “related” Correlations range in value from -1.0 to +1.0, where a correlation of 0 (zero) means no relationship between variables Absolute value of correlation tells us how large it is Correlation does NOT mean causation Why? A causes B B causes A C causes A & B – “THIRD VARIABLE PROBLEM” BUT – caution: causation usually does imply correlation ex:) negative correlation between number of Ph.D.s and number of mules third variable: urban vs. rural ex:) positive correlation between number of churches and murder rates third variable: the larger the population, the more churches in the area & probably the more crime ILLUSORY CORRELATION: the tendency to perceive correlation between variables even when these correlations are objectively absent Lunar Lunacy Effect
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