Social Development

Social Development - SocialDevelopment 13:55 Origins of...

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Social Development 13:55 Origins of Social Development: Imprinting, Critical Periods, Sensitive Periods IMPRINTING: Konrad Lorenz work with ducklings and goslings discovered a CRITICAL PERIOD, that is, an optimal interval early in development (in ducklings, a few hours after birth) during which certain events (e.g., attachment – bonding of baby to its mother) must occur SENSITIVE PERIODS Humans may have sensitive periods for the emergence of certain characteristics (e.g., language), although this issue remains controversial (e.g., studies of isolated children) “The First Three Years” – (Bruer) – fact vs. fiction primacy: some say that the first 3 years are crucial others say that this is largely exaggerated – probably just important, but not more important than any other 3 years? the role of neural plasticity the ability of the brain and the rest of the central nervous system to reorganize kids are pretty resilient – people don’t have to be AS careful as they think with kids Genie – found in 1970 – strapped to a toilet, no human contact – couldn’t speak or learn language Because it wasn’t an experiment, we cant say that her deficits were due to the sensitive period or partially due to the abuse Attachment and Attachment Styles John Bowlby : hypothesized that attachment is an evolutionary strategy for keeping children close to their parents in times of danger and it maximizes the chance that children with get adequate nutrition, etc. ‘the attachment system” a psychological system that bonds us to others (in early development to parents) a biological and psychological event
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Attachment styles are typically assessed by means of the “Strange Situation” (Ainsworth) Different infants clearly bond to their parents in different ways (1) Anxious – avoidant the infant shows resistence when the mother returns (2) Anxious – resistant (anxious – ambivalent) the infant typically shows panic when the mom leaves but shows a mixed pattern when the mother returns (3) Secure the infant shows distress upon departure, but upon her return, the infant is consoled uses mom as a secure base for exploration These predict later emotional adjustment. But why? Stranger Anxiety (“9 months anxiety”) In humans, begins at about 8-9 months, and peaks at about 12-15 months Probably holds evolutionary significance Contact Comfort (Harry Harlow) Suggests that there is more to attachment than food and nourishment Also underscores importance of early attachment bond and dangers of early separation The comfort afforded by physical touch – we like to touch/be touched Shows that monkeys probably have a sensitive period instead of a critical period Temperament Two major features (1) early appearing
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(2) largely genetically influenced Examples:
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This note was uploaded on 02/15/2012 for the course PSYCH 110 taught by Professor Marino during the Spring '11 term at Emory.

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Social Development - SocialDevelopment 13:55 Origins of...

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