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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders 16:43 Conceptions of Mental Illness: Yesterday and Today What is Mental Illness? Here are some criterion, but they dont extend to EVERY disorder. Statistical rarity Subjective distress: many disorders produce emotional pain Impairment: many interfere with peoples ability to function in everyday life Societal disapproval Biological dysfunction: many probably result from breakdowns or failures of physiological systems Mental disorders dont all have one thing in common just as siblings look similar, they dont all possess exactly the same features Historical Conceptions of Mental Illness DEMONIC MODEL: view of mental illness in which odd behavior, hearing voices, or talking to oneself was attributed to evil spirits infesting the body (Middle Ages) MEDICAL MODEL: view of mental illness as due to a physical disorder requiring medical treatment (Renaissance until present) ASYLUM: institution for people with mental illnesses created in the 15 th century Usually overcrowded and understaffed Bedlam utter chaos derived from Bethlehem, the name of an insane asylum in London Many patients died; few got better and that was even for a short time MORAL TREATMENT: approach to mental illness calling for dignity, kindness, and respect for those with mental illness (Phillippe Pinel and Dorothea Dix) The Modern Era of Psychiatric Treatment 1950s psychiatrists introduced medications for mental illnesses, beginning with Chlorpromazine for Schizophrenia and other disorders marked by a loss of contact with reality DEINSTITUTIONALIZATION: 1960s and 1970s governmental policy that focused on releasing hospitalized psychiatric patients into the community and closing mental hospitals A mixed blessing: some were able to live normal lives, but others went off their meds and wandered the streets aimlessly There are now community mental health centers and halfway houses free/low-cost facilities where people can receive treatment Psychiatric Diagnoses Across Cultures Culture-bound syndromes: specific to one or more societies Syndrome Region/Population Affected Description Arctic Hysteria Alaska Natives (Inuit) Abrupt episode accompanied by extreme excitement and frequently followed by convulsive seizures and coma Ataque de Nervios Latin America Symptoms include uncontrollable shouting, attacks of crying, trembling, heat in the chest rising to the headd, and verbal or physical aggression Brain Fog West Africa Symptoms include difficulties in concentrating, remembering and thinking Latah Malaysia and Southeast Asia Found mostly among women; marked by an extreme startle reaction, followed by a loss of control, cursing, and mimicking of others actions and speech Mal de Ojo Mediterranean and Latin countries A common term to describe the cause of disease, misfortune, and social disruption Windigo Native Americans Central and N.E. Canada Morbid state of anxiety with fears of becoming a cannibal Special Considerations in Psychiatric Classification and Diagnosis...
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- Spring '11