Chapter 1 - Chapter1:PsychologyandScientificThinking 17:07...

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Chapter 1: Psychology and Scientific Thinking 17:07 What is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition Andrew James: often regarded as the founder of American psychology Psychology and Levels of Analysis PSYCHOLOGY: the scientific study of the mind, brain, and behavior LEVELS OF ANALYSIS: rungs on a ladder of analysis, with lower levels tied most closely to biological influences and higher levels tied most closely to social influences Molecules/brain structures on the lower levels Feelings, emotions and thoughts on higher levels All levels are necessary when studying psychology What Makes Psychology Challenging – and Fascinating MULTIPLY DETERMINED: caused by many factors; relating to human behavior Psychological influences are rarely independent of each other, making it difficult to pin down which causes or causes are operating INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: variations among people in their thinking, emotion, personality, and behavior People often influence each other RECIPRICAL DETERMINISM: (Albert Bandura) the fact that we mutually influence each other’s behavior Behavior is often shaped by culture Cultural differences, like individual differences, place limits on the generalizations that psychologists can draw about human nature European Americans tend to focus on central details while Asian Americans tend to focus on peripheral or incidental details EMIC approach: investigators study the behavior of a culture from the perspective of a “native” or insider A researcher might rely on personality terms used by members of the culture Helpful to understand a culture’s specifics, but may overlook its similarities with other cultures
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ETIC approach: investigators study the behavior of a culture from the perspective of an outsider A researcher might use a different culture’s traits and translate them to the culture he is studying Why We Can’t Always Trust Our Common Sense Naïve realism: Is Seeing Believing? NAIVE REALISM: the belief that we see the world precisely as it is When Our Common Sense is Right It can be a helpful guide for generating hypotheses that scientists can later test in rigorous investigations Psychology as a Science Science is an approach to evidence Science consists of a set of attitudes and skills designed to prevent us from fooling ourselves EMPIRICISM: the premise that knowledge should initially be acquired through observation What is a Scientific Theory? SCIENTIFIC THEORY: explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world Offers an account that ties multiple findings together into one package HYPOTHESIS: a testable prediction derived from a scientific theory In other words, theories are general explanations, whereas hypotheses are specific predictions derived from these explanations . Misconception 1: a theory explains one specific event
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This note was uploaded on 02/15/2012 for the course PSYCH 110 taught by Professor Marino during the Spring '11 term at Emory.

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Chapter 1 - Chapter1:PsychologyandScientificThinking 17:07...

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