Chapter 2 - Chapter2:ResearchMethods 18:45 PREFRONTAL...

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Chapter 2: Research Methods 18:45 PREFRONTAL LOBOTOMY: surgical procedure that severs fibers connecting the frontal lobes of the brain from the underlying thalamus HEURISTIC: mental shortcut that helps us to streamline our thinking and make sense of our world REPRESENTATIVE HEURISTIC: heuristic that involves judging the probability of an event by its superficial similarity to a prototype BASE RATE: how common a characteristic or behavior is in the general population AVAILABILITY HEURISTIC: heuristic that involves estimating the likelihood of an occurrence based on the ease with which it comes to our minds COGNITIVE BIASES: systematic errors in thinking HINDSIGHT BIAS: tendency to overestimate how well we could have successfully forecasted known outcomes OVERCONFIDENCE: tendency to overestimate our ability to make correct predictions NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION: watching behavior in real-world settings without trying to manipulate the situation EXTERNAL VALIDITY: extent to which we can generalize findings to real-world settings INTERNAL VALIDITY: extent to which we can draw cause-and-effect inferences from a study CASE STUDY: research design that examines one person or a small number of people in depth, often over an extended time period
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