Chapter 7 - Chapter7Memory 03:33 MEMORY: retention of...

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03:33 MEMORY: retention of information over time The same memory mechanisms that serve us well in most circumstances can sometimes cause us problems in others MEMORY ILLUSION: false but compelling memory Observer Memory : a memory in which we see ourselves as an outside observer would Field Memory : seeing the world through your visual field SENSORY MEMORY: brief storage of perceptual information before it is passed to short-term Closely tied to the raw materials of our experiences, our perceptions of the world before passing some of it on to the second system ICONIC MEMORY: visual sensory memory ECHOIC MEMORY: auditory sensory memory SHORT-TERM MEMORY: memory system that retains information for limited durations (~20 s) DECAY: fading of information from memory INTERFERENCE: loss of information from memory because of competition from additional incoming information RETROACTIVE INTERFERENCE: interference with retention of old information due to acquisition of new information (ex: learning French after Spanish) PROACTIVE INTERFERENCE: interference with acquisition of new information due to previous learning of information (ex: playing racquet ball after tennis) Works actively with the information handed to it, transforming it into more meaningful material before passing some of it on to the third system MAGIC NUMBER: the span of short-term memory, according to George Miller; 7 +/- 2 pieces of information CHUNKING: organizing information into meaningful groupings; allowing us to extend the span of short-term memory REHEARSAL: repeating information to extend the duration of retention in short-term MAINTENANCE REHEARSAL: repeating stimuli in their original form to retain them in short- term memory ELABORATIVE REHEARSAL: linking stimuli to each other in a meaningful way to improve retention of information in short-term memory Paired-associate task : tree-pipe, dog-rocket, etc. LEVELS OF PROCESSING: depth of transforming information, which influences how easily
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Chapter 7 - Chapter7Memory 03:33 MEMORY: retention of...

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