Chapter 11

Chapter 11 - Chapter11:EmotionandMotivation 17:59 Theories...

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Chapter 11: Emotion and Motivation 17:59 Theories of Emotion: What Causes Our Feeling? EMOTION: mental state or feeling associated with our evaluation of our experiences Discrete Emotions Theory: Emotions as Evolved Expressions DISCRETE EMOTIONS THEORY: theory that humans experience a small number of distinct emotions that are rooted in our biology Advocates say that emotions serve evolutionary functions Support for an Evolutionary Basis of Emotion The fact that many mammals display similar emotional reactions during similar social behaviors, such as tickling and play, lends itself to this hypothesis: perhaps these reactions share the same evolutionary origins. Culture and Emotion Recognition of Emotions across Cultures PRIMARY EMOTIONS: small number (perhaps 7) of emotions believed by some theorists to be cross- culturally universal Happiness, disgust, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, contempt Secondary emotions: emotions derived from two primary emotions Alarm = fear + surprise Schadenfreude: a German term referring to the glee we experience at witnessing the misfortune of others, Cultural Differences in Emotional Expression: Display Rules DISPLAY RULES: societal guidelines for how and when to express emotions In many cases, culture doesn’t influence emotion itself; it influences its overt expression Accompaniments of Emotional Expressions Emotions and Physiology For certain emotions, our bodies react differently: heart races, teeth and hands clench, etc.
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Brain imaging data – different emotions cause different areas of the brain to light up Real versus Fake Emotions Duchenne smile : a genuine smile Pan Am smile : fake smiles Cognitive Theories of Emotion: Think First, Feel Later COGNITIVE THEORIES OF EMOTION: theories proposing that emotions are products of thinking JAMES-LANGE THEORY OF EMOTION: theory proposing that emotions result from our interpretations of our bodily reactions to stimuli “we’re afraid because we run away” SOMATIC (physical) MARKER THEORY: theory proposing that we use our “gut reactions” to help us determine how we should act Ex: like how if our hearts race and we sweat we try to determine why we are doing that, so we assign an emotion to the reactions i.e. fear Pure automatic failure (PAF) : marked by a deterioration of autonomic nervous system neurons beginning in middle age – don’t experience raise in heart rate Causes patients to risk more than they normally would Somatic markers can be helpful when making decisions CANNON-BARD THEORY OF EMOTION: theory proposing that an emotion-provoking event leads simultaneously to an emotion and to bodily reactions Ex: the sight of the bear triggers both fear and running at the same time TWO-FACTOR THEORY OF EMOTION: theory proposing that emotions are produced by an undifferentiated state of arousal along with an attribution (explanation) of that arousal 2 psychological events are required to produce an emotion:
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Chapter 11 - Chapter11:EmotionandMotivation 17:59 Theories...

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