Thinking and Reasoning

Thinking and Reasoning - Allow us to speed up and simplify...

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Thinking and Reasoning 14:01 Cognitive Economy We are “cognitive misers”: we strive to simplify the world (Fiske and Taylor) To do so, we often engage in “top-down processing” – making sense of information by using higher-order concepts, like beliefs and expectations We “fill in the blanks” Mondegreens – misheard lyrics of songs Schemas Organized structures of knowledge stored in memory Help us make sense of the world are usually adaptive, but can sometimes lead to errors some schemas are scripts – expected “story lines” of actions schemas of prejudice Priming Activating a schema by a related stimulus, often related in meaning (semantic priming) Often helps us to identify a new stimulus more accurately or quickly Heuristics: Availability and representativeness Are mental shortcuts or rules of thumb (Kahneman and Tversky)
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Unformatted text preview: Allow us to speed up and simplify our processing Usually work fairly well, but can also mislead us AVAILABILITY HEURISTIC: judging the probability of an occurrence by the ease with which it comes to mind Can lead us to judge risk inaccurately REPRESENTATIVE HEURISTIC: judging probability of an occurrence by its similarity to a prototype Can lead to a base rate neglect - ignoring how frequent things are when judging their probability of occurrence We simplify the world, and thats necessary to function in everyday life But theres often a fine line between simplification and oversimplification We should use our schemas and heuristics but we shouldnt rely on them blindly 14:01 14:01...
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Thinking and Reasoning - Allow us to speed up and simplify...

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