Study Guide ANT 231 2011

Study Guide ANT 231 2011 - Some overviews: Define dementia...

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Some overviews: Define dementia (>= 2 changes in memory, language function, praxis, visuospatial abilities, executive functions; often accompanied by disturbance in mood and behavior and/or personality) Dementia is a global crisis, expected to quadruple in the next 40 years Alzheimer's Disease: Definitive diagnosis includes post-mortem identification of "plaques" and "tangles" in microscopic specimens of brain tissue, together with overall "brain atrophy" Nearly half of those afflicted are over the age of 85 Explain the importance of identifying mild cognitive impairment, and suggest several approaches to identifying and predicting mild cognitive impairment (known as MCI): 1. Using brain imaging techniques and 2., cognitive screening tests based on memory where MCI individuals are discriminated by their lack of attention to novel images in preferential looking tasks (that is, they don't remember what they just saw, and therefore all images seem "novel." ) Can you identify risk factors for neurodegenerative disease ? (age, head trauma, depression, high blood pressure and high cholesterol, low B12 and folate) Can you identify protective factors for neurodegenerative disease? (exercise, education, anti-inflammatory drugs, red wine) What is known about genetics and Alzheimer's? There is a rare dominant form that has onset prior to 65 years of age, associated with proteins known as pressenilins There is a common, sporadic form of AD associated with the late onset of disease (>65 years of age); about 40% of these are associated with the protein, Apo E. The most common hypothesis regarding causation is known as the "Amyloid Hypothesis" in which the "plaques" visible under the microscope are associated with aggregated amyloid protein, due to lack of clearance of the amyloid caused by aberrant function of ApoE Consider the Barker hypothesis : How does it apply to the evidence for predicting cardiovascular disease? What is it? Be prepared to give the background, explain the original observations, the hypotheses, and subsequent observations. How is this viewpoint relevant in today's world? How does these observations shift the focus in present medical approaches? Give three examples of organs/systems/disease that could reflect similar prenatal insults. Describe the insult, give the details of the consequences. Consider interventions that could be designed and implemented to predict well-being among high-risk populations. As individuals, what can we do to limit the negative predictive outcomes for our own children? Review Khoury
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Consider the proliferation of personal genomic tests: what are the pros and cons to their availability? Regarding the nature vs nurture debate, Dr. Khoury quoted a 1986 author "100% of any disease is environmentally caused and 100% of any disease is genetic. Any other notion is based on a naive view of causation" (Rothman) What does this mean? Dr. Khoury illustrated some of the methodologic challenges in human genome
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This note was uploaded on 02/15/2012 for the course ANTHRO 231 taught by Professor Dr.lampl during the Spring '11 term at Emory.

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Study Guide ANT 231 2011 - Some overviews: Define dementia...

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