study guide final ant 231

study guide final ant 231 - 1 Thursday The surprising state...

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1. Thursday, March 17, 2011-- The surprising state of Vitamin D health a. What is the historical background to the discovery of the link between Vitamin D, sunlight, and rickets? a.i. Rickets was a disease first described by Francis Glisson in the mid-1600s. Glisson recognized that children in London were afflicted by a disease starting in early infancy up to 18 months. a.i.1. Whistler is also credited for discovering rickets a.ii. 1919 Mellanby demonstrated anti-rachitic activity with cod liver oil in dogs. Thought to be vitamin A a.ii.1. Huldshinsky prevented/cured rickets in children with UV lamps a.iii. 1922 McCollum: cod liver oil retained anti-rachitic activity after destruction of vitamin A. “vitamin D a.iv. rickets serious deisease related to vit d deficiency. Found that children living in city more likely to get rickets than children in country. So conncection betw rickets and sunlight a.iv.1. found that cod liver coudld help rickets. Initially thought this was because of vit a. but when vit a was removed from cod liver oil rickets was still cured. So realized that it must be vit d. b. What is the difference between vitamin D3 and Vitamin D2? b.i. Vitamin D3 b.i.1. cholecalciferol is made in the skin or found in fatty fish b.i.2. naturally produced in humans and animals when sunlight hits the skin b.i.3. most potent and effective form of vit d in terms of raising blood levels of vit d b.i.4. safert than vitamin d2 b.ii. vitamin D2 b.ii.1. ergocalciferol is found in fungi and plants. Has double bond betw c22 and c23 and methyl group on c24 b.ii.2. less potent and less effective in raising human vitamin d levels. b.ii.3. But is the only prescription vit d available. b.ii.4. Need twice as much vit d2 as vit d3 b.iii. They both have the same biologic potency in humans and only differ in a doulbe bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group on C24. c. What are the classic functions of Vitamin D? c.i. After Vitamin D is made in the skin or obtained in the diet, it circulates to the liver and is hydroxylated in the 25-position to form 25-hydroxyvitamin D. This then circulates to the liver to form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D c.ii. The major role for vitamin D is to improve calcium absorption in the intestine for proper mineralization of bone and maintain normal serum calcium levels d. Data from NHANES indicates what percentage of individuals are vitamin D insufficient? d.i. 60% of people are insufficient.
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d.ii. 90% blacks are insufficient d.iii. 80% Hispanics insufficient d.iv. 60% whites insuffiecient e. Is this number increasing or decreasing? e.i. Decreasing for al age groups. 45% sufficient in 1995. 23% sufficient in 2004. f. What is the 2010 Institute of Medicine Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of Vitamin D? f.i. 0 to 50 years old: 1000-2000iu f.ii. 50-70 yrs: 2000iu f.iii. 70 and older yrs: 2000iu g. How is Vitamin D associated with the immune system?
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