Study guide for Dr. Kucuk's lecture What can you do to influence your risk for various cancers? This is a difficult question to answer, as studies are done at the level of the population, and "associations" are calculated. This can never directly address causality; and it is not possible to know what "would have happened" in an individual "if only they had" changed their behavior. This lecture addressed population-level data, and provided perspective on associations as follows: Diet has been associated with more than 30% of cancer deaths; specifically, consumption of vegetables and fruits have been "convincingly" linked to decreased cancers of the gastro-intestinal system (mouth and pharynx, esophagus, stomach, colon and rectum), as well as the lung. Increasing BMI (body mass index) has been statistically significantly associated with increased risk for uterine and breast cancer, pancreatic and colorectal cancers. Physical activity levels have been reported to be "convincingly" associated with decreased risks
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