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Unformatted text preview: Environmental Studies 132 Spring 2010 Final Exam Study Guide READING/REFERENCE MATERIAL: The exam will cover the following material: In: Environment , by Raven, Berg, Hassenzahl 7 th edition 6 th edition Pp 80-84 Succession ( pages 70-73 in 6 th edition) Pp 101-103 Atmosphere (99-103?) mostly same pages I think PP 374-377, 389-391 Endangered Species p. 380-390 (ESA p. 24) Chapter 18 Land Resources SAME chapters in 6th Chapter 20 Air Pollution If you want more on the ESA Page 395 Reading on systems, posted on Blackboard: • SystemInfluences.pdf Powerpoints on Blackboard: • 6 April Air Pollution.ppt • 132federal lands.ppt • succession-short.ppt • fire132.ppt Labs 8&9: Air Quality and Succession Labs TOPICS: Atmosphere • Name layers of Atmosphere The atmosphere consists of a stratified structure. Each layer has different features (temperature, mass density (density of the particles), etc.)From bottom to top: Troposphere-99% of the mass density of the atmosphere is in the troposphere, this makes sense as gravity is the force that is holding these gases in close. The temperature of the surface of Earth is about 278 degrees (K) or 0 degrees C, but 1 as you go up into the troposphere the temperature decreases because there is less air pressure and density (two factors that cause a lot of climate characteristics.) Stratosphere-Ozone layer (about 12-13 miles up) Mesosphere Thermosphere Exosphere Ionosphere- This is the layer that causes radio waves to “bounce”. Solar radiation ionizes or breaks electrons free. Radio waves “bounce”---so can transmit radio waves around the world. • What is stratospheric ozone? How is it formed? What is the ozone hole? How is it different from ground level ozone?-Because of a very reactive, pretty unstable form of oxygen (ozone is stable in the O 2 form but because of solar radiation the oxygen grabs on to other molecules to form this reactive form- ozone) Stratospheric ozone is different than tropospheric ozone (which is a pollutant in the atmosphere). Stratospheric ozone reacts with ultraviolet (uva, uvb, uvc) radiation in the spectrum. This ozone resonates with the short wave radiation coming in -The ozone hole: Around the 1920s scientists started analyzing how this ozone is scattered/concentrated in the atmosphere. They used sensors (Dobson units) to measure the ozone. They now refer to this change in concentration of ozone as the “ozone hole”. The ozone hole increases with Chlorine and Bromine. Most causes to increase the ozone hole were/are found in refrigerating unit chemicals, etc. (CFC’s chlorofluorocarbon molecules). 2- In the late 1970s/early 1980s the 1...
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- Spring '10
- stratospheric ozone, Ozone Hole, ground level ozone