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Final Study Guide 260

# Final Study Guide 260 - Chapter 7 97-103(done up until but...

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Chapter: 7 . 97-103 (done) , up until but not including "geographic examples of confidence intervals" “When sample stats represent a larger pop accurately, they are considered unbiased estimators” -point estimation : stat is calculated from a sample and then used to estimate the corresponding pop parameter…(ex w probability estimation best estimate for a population mean is sample mean…etc) -interval estimation : range that a sample stat is likely in (ex confidence intervals-represent level of precision associated w pop estimate)-width determined by –sample size-amount of variability in pop- probability level or level of confidence selected. W confidence intervals: upper/lower bound. Confidence level: prob that the interval surrounding sample mean encompasses the true pop Mean. Significance level (alpha-equals total sampling error): Prob that the interval surrounding sample mean fails to encompass true pop Mean. 8. all - 9. all 10 . all 11. skip Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests (156-158 and 163-166), cover everything else 12 . focus on Dr. Vasquez-Prokopec's presentation ; book pages 171-176 (do not need to know how to do the calculations)- Book: Nearest Neighbor Analysis to determine whether a random (Poisson) process has generated a point pattern. Requires a random sample of points from a population and that sample points are independently selected. 13. 193-201 (up until but not including section 13.3) 14. all ENVS 260: Quantitative Methods in Environmental Studies List of key topics and concepts Data: Terminology: o Singular (one “data point”) = datum o Plural = data Different types of data: o Categorical/nominal (not numerical, not ordered) o Ordinal (may be categorical or integer scale, ordered-strongly or weakly) o Continuous (numerical, not text; with decimal points, not integers) Measures of central tendency and of dispersion: What is a measure of central tendency? Mean, median, mode: describe characteristics of the data… When does it make sense to focus the mean of a sample? If normally distributed, few outliers… When does it not make sense to focus on the mean? If not normally distributed, many outliers… **If have greater than about 35% coefficient of variation (sd/mean or s/xbar) then mean is prob not best to use… What are measures of dispersion? Standard deviation, variance

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How are standard deviation and variance related to one another? Variance= SD squared Probability distributions: What are the key features of the normal distribution? Symmetrical, mesokurtic?, How does a t‐distribution differ from a normal distribution? T distribution if have sample size less than 30: z dist if sample size greater than or equal to 30. How is the normal distribution a special case of the t‐distribution? Normal distribution is t with infinite degrees of freedom… Central limit theorem : (law of large numbers) What does the CLT predict? “Suppose all possible random samples of size n are drawn from an infinitely large, normally distributed pop having mean Mu and standard dev sigma. The frequency distribution of these sample means will have:
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