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Unformatted text preview: Intro to Physical Anthropology Fall 2008 Study Guide Mid-term Exam 2 : Structure of exam: Short answer (combination of multiple choice, T/F, matching, etc, plus one essay (choice of question). Total marks: 50 Time: 50 minutes You are responsible for all of the assigned class readings, recitations, lecture material and videos covering weeks 5 – class on Tuesday, Oct 28. You should focus on material that appears in both the text and lectures, although some questions will be gleaned from the lectures or text only. You are responsible for both videos Bring a CALCULATOR and READ THE ESSAY QUESTIONS COMPLETELY before answering. Please print or write very clearly on your essay answer. Key Terms and Topics for short answer or integration into essay The Bones within Us : • function of skeleton- support, movement, factory, storehouse, protection • bone integrity- articulated (bones are still in place), disarticulate/cammingled (bones are everyhwere • Joint: functions articulation between 2 or more bones, movement, leverage Tendon bundle of collagen fibers Ligament cord/sheet of collagen fibers o Synarthrosis (fibrous) immovable (ex: skull), sutures (where joints interlock), gomphosis (ex: teeth in jaw), syndesmosis (a joint that bonds the bones together) o Amphiarthrosis (cartilaginous- slight movement) symphysis (fibrocartilage- ex: pelvis), synchondrosis (cartilage- ex: rib cage; temporary growth plate) o diarthrosis (synovial- free moving) synovial fluid (keeps the movement fluid & easy; ex: elbow or hip) • Planes of the body - sagittal divides the body into the left and right (down center)- coronal divides the body into the front and back (down side)- transverse divides the body into top and bottom (middle) • Directional terms- Medial anything mid-line through the body and into the body- Lateral going away from the body- Anterior front of body- Posterior back of body- Superior top of body- Inferior bottom of body 1 Intro to Physical Anthropology Fall 2008- Proximal bones closest to the trunk- Distal bones farthest from the trunk • Parts of a basic long bone- Diaphysis shaft of bone- Epiphysis ends of bone that eventually fuses, until then there’s cartilage in between • Pronation rotation of the hand and forearm so that the palm faces dorsally or toward the body • Supination turning the palm of the hand anteriorly (towards front) Skull Frontal, parietal, temporal, mandible (jaw), occipital, maxilla (upper dental area by nose), zygomatic (cheek bones) Supraorbital torus brow ridge orbital margin top part of the eyebrow Mastoid process behind ear for connection to neck muscles Foramen magnum where the spine connects to skull Nuchal crest under the foramen magnum 4 types of teeth incisors (flat spade, 1 root), canine (pointed tusk, 1 root), premolars (double cusp, 1-2 roots), molars (upper: 3 roots, lower: 2 roots, squarish occlusal surface, grinders, 4-5...
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