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Unformatted text preview: Weather and Climate Notes Season Variability- Tilt of Earths Axis WEATHER Short Term temperature / precipitation- Differential heating o Hot Air Less Dense Low Pressure Rises Condenses as it rises o Cold air More Dense High Pressure Sinks Drying effect as it sinks Reading a Weather Map Wind blows from H to L- H = high pressure / sinking air/ dry / clockwise- L = low pressure / rising air / wet / counterclockwise *Isobars*- When Isobars are close together, the H sweep right away to the L, and causes windier conditions Global Circulation- Max insulation at Equator- Hot air rises at Equator, cold air sinks at Poles- Return surface flow from Poles to Equator Atmospheric Circulation- At 60 degrees N Moderate, wet rising 30 degrees N Cool, dry sinking Equator Hot, wet rising Coriolis Effect A rocket launched North from equator has 2 motions: 1. N: Push from its engines 2. E: Spin of the Earth Things drift to the East (right) in N hemisphere, West (left) in S hemisphere Variable Heating + Coriolis Effect = Global Circulation Pattern- 3 global cells (per hemisphere)- Predictable surface winds- Global climate belts CLIMATE Seasonally-averaged weather- At any given location, climate is controlled by 6 factors: o Latitude o Altitude o Distance to water o Ocean currents o Wind barriers o High/Low pressure zones Latitude- Determines insulation (heat from the Sun) Altitude- Increasing altitude similar to increasing latitude- +1 km altitude ~ 15 degrees towards pole Distance to Water- Water changes T slower than land o Coastal Ts moderated by ocean Ts o Continental interiors can have extreme Ts Ocean Currents- Can be warm or cold and can change temperatures o Warm: Gulf Stream keeps UK mild (+ foggy)...
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- Fall '10