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Groundwater Notes

Groundwater Notes - GROUNDWATER NOTES Groundwater Only...

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GROUNDWATER NOTES Groundwater Only about 1% of water on Earth is groundwater – why so valuable? Abundant – 70 x more fresh water below ground than above Constant – available even during dry periods Widespread – flows from humid to dry regions underground Porosity and Permeability Porosity - % of material that consists of open spaces. - Compactions and cementation reduces porosity Permeability – how easily a solid allows fluids to pass through it. Inflitration Infiltration: gravity pulls water molecules downward. Runoff vs infiltration – controls? Unsaturated zone : not all pore space filled with water Saturated zone – all pore space is filled with water Boundary between two spaces is called water table Recharge and Discharge of Groundwater Recharge – groundwater replenishment Recharge area – area where precipitation infiltrates the saturated zone Discharge- groundwater flowing out Discharge area – subsurface areas like lakes Topography of Water Table – mimics surface elvations, but smoother Rates of groundwater movement – slow to very slow. Typically 10-100cm/day Aquifer and Aquitard Aquifer – sediment/ rock through which water flows easily Aquitard – restricts the flow of water Unconfined : intersects surface Confined : bracketed by aquitards [protected] Saltwater Intrusion Problem in New Jersey in Cape May.
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Chemistry of Groundwater Groundwater contains dissolved minerals Groundwater passing through … - Salt will by salty (duh) - Limestone ‘hard water, counteracting soap lather precipitate white ‘scale’ - Iron-rich – leave orange stain Caves form from dissolving carbonate material (limestone) Karst Topography Karst Topography – landscape dominated by caves and sinkholes - Small, closed basins - Disrupted drainage pattern - Disappearing streams - Abundant springs Karst Rock types – soluble! -
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Groundwater Notes - GROUNDWATER NOTES Groundwater Only...

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