10.25.11 - 10/25/11 Italian Cultural Heritage 1) 1748...

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10/25/11 Italian Cultural Heritage 1) 1748 territorial arrangements remain unchanged until 1796 when general napoleon Bonaparte would descend in Italy at the head of a French revolutionary army 2) General socio-economic conditions of the Italian peninsula at the beginning of the 18 th century 3) Where did the enlightenment come from and what did it afford a) Inequality that characterized life in general aroused a desire for reform b) Stimulus to reform was c) Open minded rules, reform the fiscal, educational, administrative, judicial systems, and to the modernize agriculture and commerce 4) Premises of the enlightenment a) The spread of Empiricism the theory that all knowledge originates in experience; this theory is associated especially with the British philosophers Francis Bacon 1561-1626, John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume. b) The spread of rationalism the theory that the exercise of reason provides the only basis for the action and belief; the father of such theory is considered to be the French philosopher Descartes 1590-1650 c) The progress of science. Galileo and newton 5) Major characteristics of the intellectual movement of the enlightenment a) Use of reason b) Use of empirical, inductive methodologies of scientific inquiry c) A lively questioning of authority, of traditional doctrines and values d) An emphasis on the idea of human progress e) Difference from before: large amount of people, concerned with the social 6) Religious/moral views commonly embraced by the enlightenment a) A lively criticism of religious institutions and dogmas b) The enlightenment believes in the existence of an ethical common ground or natural ethics, a body of universally valid ethical principles, good for all men, independently
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10.25.11 - 10/25/11 Italian Cultural Heritage 1) 1748...

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