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Unformatted text preview: Valerie Udeozor Homework 3, Due: Sept. 13 Self-Explaining with Diagrams and Text Summary According to Ainsworth and Loizou (2003), self-explaining during studying deepens one’s understanding of the material; furthermore, the format of the study material influences this self-explanation effect. To test this hypothetical aspect of the self-explanation effect, Ainsworth and Loizou chose a total of 20 participants. They were all in the age of group of 19 to 23 years old, and none had studied biology past the age of 16. The study evaluated time and test format, requiring a 2 (pre-test vs. post-test) x 2 (diagrams vs. text) between- and within-subjects experimental design. The independent variables are the design’s two factors (time and test format) and the dependent variable is post-test performance. For the procedure, the participants first took a pre-test on the human circulatory system to indicate the level of future performance improvement. They then reviewed information on the human circulatory system and were instructed to self-explain the material; 10 reviewed the information in text and the other 10 did so in diagrams. After the study period, participants immediately took a post-test. The test format for both the pre-test and post-test was a blood path diagram and multiple-choice questions. After performing 2x2 ANOVAs on the test questions, Ainsworth and Loizou’s hypothesis was confirmed. The format of study material had a significant impact on the self- explanation effect. Study material in diagram format led to higher performance on post-tests than did material in text format (Ainsworth & Loizou, 2003). A mixture of diagram and text on the test format did effectively remove bias from this study’s results. However, it is somewhat equivocal whether the self-explanation itself contributed to higher performance on the post-test or simply the format of the study material. Perhaps there should have been a control condition with participants that did not engage in the self-explanation...
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- Fall '08
- Cognitive Psychology, Kuo