American Government - Study Guide 1

American Government - Study Guide 1 - American Ideology...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
American Ideology – Bicameralism – division of a legislative assembly into two houses, chambers, or branches Checks and Balances – mechanism through which each branch of government is able to participate in and influence the activities of the other branches Civil liberties – areas of personal freedom with which governments are restrained from interfering Civil rights – legal or moral claims that citizens are entitled to make upon the government to protect them from the illegal actions of other citizens and government agencies Comte de Montesquieu - famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, taken for granted in modern discussions of government and implemented in many constitutions throughout the world. Most famous work divided society into 3 classes: monarchy, aristocracy, and the commons. Saw two types of governmental power existing: the sovereign and the administrative. The administrative powers were the executive, the legislative, and the judicial. These should be separate from and dependent upon each other so that the influence of any one power would not be able to exceed that of the other two, either singly or in combination. Equality of opportunity vs. Equality of result – Equality of opportunity: a universally shared American ideal that all people should have the freedom to use whatever talents and wealth they have to their fullest potential. Equality of result: the goal of reducing or eliminating incidental inequalities in condition between individuals or households in a society. This usually means equalizing income and/or total wealth to a certain degree by granting a greater amount of income to poorer individuals or households at the expense of relatively wealthy individuals or households. Federalism – system of government in which power is divided by a constitution between a central government and regional governments John Locke – father of free market, the invisible hand, capitalism Limited government - a government in which anything more than minimal governmental intervention in personal liberties and the economy is generally disallowed by law, usually in a written Constitution; the theory of limited government contrasts with the idea that the government should intervene to promote equality and opportunity through regulation of property and wealth redistribution. Path dependency theory - explains how the set of decisions one faces for any given circumstance is limited by the decisions one has made in the past, even though past circumstances may no longer be relevant. Thomas Hobbes - the right of the individual; the natural equality of all men; the artificial character of the political order (which led to the later distinction between civil society and the
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
state); the view that all legitimate political power must be "representative" and based on the consent of the people; and a liberal interpretation of law which leaves people free to do whatever the law does not explicitly forbid. Models of representation –
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Page1 / 6

American Government - Study Guide 1 - American Ideology...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online