Territorial expansion, U.S.A.

Territorial expansion, U.S.A. - Territorial Expansion of...

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For Econ 123, Spring 2011 1500-99 Class warfare in England, Spain, Germany, France: Haves vs. Have-nots, with Have-a-littles and Hope-to-haves in between. In this Century, the 16th, the Haves win big. Enclosure movement (privatization of commons, sheep replacing humans) in England especially. Charles V slaughters religious dissidents (Anabaptists) in Germany. Confiscation of church lands in England destroys welfare system. Victory of England over Spanish Armada dumps soldiers and sailors on job market. "Hard times" and Malthusian thinking (200 years before Malthus) build up high pressures for emigration. 1519 Cortez conquers Mexico, begins flow of gold and silver to Spain, thence to all of Europe which exports to Spain. "Mercantilism" makes a virtue of importing gold. 1609 Dutch East India Co. sends Henry Hudson (an Englishman) to find a passage to India. He finds the Hudson River and fur trade, leaves trading post on Manhattan Island 1620-40 "Great Migration" of Puritans to New England 1637 Pequod massacre opens s.e. New England to English settlers, but "hard times" block them. Also, 1640, Great Migration ebbs; revolution in England lets Puritans return home, and non-Puritans not admitted to New England. For Puritans, however, conditions were magnetic: tenured lands were equally shared and taxed, and much land was common. 1649 Puritans under Cromwell take over England, persecute royalists, who seek refuge in Virginia, just as persecuted Puritans has earlier (and later) sought refuge in New England. Virginia discovers tobacco, thrives and grows by exporting it. Although ruled by Cavaliers, it adopts magnetic policies to attract labor. 1640 and ff. Lower valley of Ct Valley, with more fertile soils, attracts settlers from Mass. Bay area, defying Dutch who claimed but did not settle the land 1664 England under Duke of York (future James II) takes New Amsterdam, changes little except its name. English governors are aristocrats, like the Dutch patroons who remain powerful – class warfare and "the international comity of property" trump international warfare, a frequent tendency in history. Royalist aristocrats get along better with Dutch aristocrats than with English puritans of middle and lower classes who had settled both shores of Long Island Sound and resisted royalists. 1676 "King Philip"'s War (his real namewas Metacom) levels old settlements in northern New England, but final victory opens land for new expansion. Puritan birthrate was extremely high; English population swells. 1676
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This note was uploaded on 02/16/2012 for the course ECON 123 taught by Professor Smith during the Winter '11 term at UC Riverside.

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Territorial expansion, U.S.A. - Territorial Expansion of...

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