For Econ 123, Spring 2011
Class warfare in England, Spain, Germany, France: Haves vs. Have-nots, with
Have-a-littles and Hope-to-haves in between.
In this Century, the 16th, the Haves win big.
Enclosure movement (privatization of commons, sheep replacing humans) in England especially.
Charles V slaughters religious dissidents (Anabaptists) in Germany.
Confiscation of church
lands in England destroys welfare system.
Victory of England over Spanish Armada dumps
soldiers and sailors on job market.
"Hard times" and Malthusian thinking (200 years before
Malthus) build up high pressures for emigration.
Cortez conquers Mexico, begins flow of gold and silver to Spain, thence to all of
Europe which exports to Spain.
"Mercantilism" makes a virtue of importing gold.
Dutch East India Co. sends Henry Hudson (an Englishman) to find a passage to
He finds the Hudson River and fur trade, leaves trading post on Manhattan Island
"Great Migration" of Puritans to New England
Pequod massacre opens s.e. New England to English settlers, but "hard times"
Also, 1640, Great Migration ebbs;
revolution in England lets Puritans return home,
and non-Puritans not admitted to New England.
For Puritans, however, conditions were
tenured lands were equally shared and taxed, and much land was common.
Puritans under Cromwell take over England, persecute royalists, who seek refuge
in Virginia, just as persecuted Puritans has earlier (and later) sought refuge in New England.
Virginia discovers tobacco, thrives and grows by exporting it.
Although ruled by Cavaliers, it
adopts magnetic policies to attract labor.
1640 and ff.
Lower valley of Ct Valley, with more fertile soils, attracts settlers from Mass.
Bay area, defying
Dutch who claimed but did not settle the land
England under Duke of York (future James II) takes New Amsterdam, changes
little except its name.
English governors are aristocrats, like the Dutch patroons who remain
powerful – class warfare and "the international comity of property" trump international warfare,
a frequent tendency in history.
Royalist aristocrats get along better with Dutch aristocrats than
with English puritans of middle and lower classes who had settled both shores of Long Island
Sound and resisted royalists.
"King Philip"'s War (his real namewas Metacom) levels old settlements in
northern New England, but final victory opens land for new expansion.
Puritan birthrate was
extremely high; English population swells.