final exam study guideHST112

final exam study guideHST112 - Scott DePutron Final Exam...

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Scott DePutron 5/11/11 Final Exam Study Guide HST 112 Kristallnacht : Following the Nuremburg Laws in Germany during Hitler’s reign, Jews were subject to a great deal of persecution, as they lost many of their rights, were forced into slave labor, evicted from their apartments, and prevented from buying most clothing and food. In 1938, a Jewish teenager, reacting to the harassment of his parents, killed a German official. In retaliation, Nazis attacked some 200 synagogues, smashed windows of Jewish-owned stores, ransacked apartments of known or suspected Jews, and threw more than 20,000 Jews into prisons and camps. The night of November 9-10 became known as Kristallnacht, or the Night of Broken Glass. This event is significant because it marks the beginning of Phase 3 of Hitler’s establishment of the Racial State, in which his terror moved from the local level to a nationally coordinated campaign against the Jews. In addition, following Kristallnacht, by 1939, more than half of Germany’s 500,000 Jews had emigrated due to this persecution, which helped finance Germany’s economic revival from the large emigration fees that the Jews were forced to pay. Kulaks : When Stalin came to power in the Soviet Union, he attempted to rapidly industrialize the country by enacting a series of 5 year plans. These plans involved a process called agricultural collectivization, in which the state would confiscate grain and domestic produce and use it to feed the urban workforce or to sell on the foreign market in order to finance industrialization. However, the peasants resisted government demands by cutting production or withholding produce from the market, causing Stalin to announce a new revolutionary challenge: the “liquidation of the kulaks.” Kulak became a derogatory term for prosperous peasants, who then became subject to a great deal of persecution as Stalin attempted to end independent farming altogether. Kulaks are significant because they became “enemies of the state,” as party workers began to rob them, leave them to starve, and even murder them and their families. The persecution of Kulaks marks an important step in the terror Stalin used as he attempted to implement agricultural collectivization, though this process actually resulted in a sharp decline in grain production and large increases in starvation throughout the country. March on Rome : Following WWI, Italy remained in a state of unrest, which allowed for Benito Mussolini to come to power. In order to seize power on the national level, Mussolini and his personal army (the Black Shirts) of Fascist followers first seized control in local governments throughout Italy. Then, on October 28, 1922, he organized for thousands of his followers to converge on Rome and demand that he be given power. This March on Rome caused the King, Victor Emmanuel III, to make Mussolini prime minister in order to avoid a Civil War. This event is significant because it marks the Fascist seizure of power in Italy, which then quickly led to the
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2012 for the course HST 112 taught by Professor Ebner during the Spring '08 term at Syracuse.

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final exam study guideHST112 - Scott DePutron Final Exam...

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