HST - NOTES HST 112 The Crisis of the Ancien...

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NOTES HST 112 1/24/11 The Crisis of the Ancien Regime and the Coming of the French Revolution Today’s Main Argument: France had the biggest army on the continent, only rivaled really by England. Cause of French Revolution Ancien Regime Political Structure Absolutism Monarchy Authority, the controlled everything, all forms of government, made laws, enforced laws, went to war, 18 th century, Absolutist increased power by connecting with centralized state Louis XIV (French), Catherine the Great (Russia), Joseph II (Austria), No checks and balances, Except in some ways in some countries: France: Estates General, vote, power is NOT binding, could express opinion Spain: Cortes Eastern Europe: Diets Law courts French Noble Courts Noble court not Parlement Social Structure Three Estates Born into estate 1 st : clergy: 100,000 people, don’t pay taxes, Fiscal privileges; “tithe” –tax to church, must pay, church pays no taxes 2 nd : The nobility: Could by a title, fiscal privileges, monopoly on positions in the military, Nobles cannot be involved in banking and commerce, Some nobles have huge amounts of lands, their own legal system, 1000’s of people working for them 3 rd : Commoner 95-98% : Everyone else Divided into still more parts 1. Richer, challenge ideas 2. Middle class, shopkeepers, lawyers, doctors, reading works of enlightenment 3. Urban workers – aren’t many of them 4. Peasants- 80% of population, working under feudal contracts, gives most of their own product to lords Must pay Tille, Tithe, Rent,
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Causes/Preconditions of the French Revolution 1. Leadership: decline in quality After Louis XVI, Tinkerer, only once left his Palace, married to Marie Antoinette, tons of scandals linked to her 2. Tax system: 2 wealthiest groups didn’t pay tax AT ALL 3. Enlightenment: reading works, think critically, challenge ideas of Absolutism, 4. Economic Strife and Crop Failure: 1788 most of population survives on bread Immediate Cause: French Monarchy has NO MONEY!! 1789: Convergence of Revolts Reform tax code (RAISES) 1. Noble Revolt (1788) Say no, and parlement of Paris says the only way you can change tax code is through us or by calling the estates general together, May 1789, hasn’t occurred for 175 years, 3 rd estate wants to vote number of people, Louis XVI says no, 1 vote per chamber (1 chamber per estate) 2. Revolt of the 3 rd Estate (June) -Declares itself as the national assembly, who every wants can join, appeals to Louis, Louis locks them out of the hall, so they met on a near by Tennis court, and make the Tennis Court Oath (June 20) they vow they will not disband until they make a constitution for FRANCE Tell Louis they can’t take orders, total defiance of Monarchal Authority July 11 dismisses his most progressive ministers, and brings in military. National Assembly, has no army 3. July 13, throw up barricades, and commoners do what ever they need to protect revolution (Urban Revolt) Storming of the Bastille July 14-17 Symbol of the 3
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2012 for the course HST 112 taught by Professor Ebner during the Spring '08 term at Syracuse.

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HST - NOTES HST 112 The Crisis of the Ancien...

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