PHI 107 Exam 1 Review

PHI 107 Exam 1 Review - PHI 107 Exam 1 Review PART 1...

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Unformatted text preview: PHI 107 Exam 1 Review PART 1 (9/1-9/15) According to philosophers an Argument means a connected sequence of statements leading to or establishing a conclusion. An argument is two-part: Premises- where the argument begins, starting point that provides the evidence or reasoning. (There can be multiple premises) Conclusion- where the argument ends, is it supposed to be supported or justified by the premises? Exp: P 1. If Irene dropped ten inches of rain, then the river flooded. P 2. Irene dropped ten inches of rain 1,2,3. The River flooded A Valid deductive argument the truth of the premises must guarantee the truth of the conclusion without exception. (It is valid if it logically impossible for its premises to all be true and for conclusion to be false) Sound argument- is valid and ALL of its premises are true. (If an argument is sound than its conclusion is true.) An argument can be Valid but unsound (EXP) 1. Obamas from Mars 2. His skin is Green 1,2,3. Obama is from mars so his skin is green. Must a Valid Argument have all true conclusions? No because. A Sound argument must have a true conclusion because it states that it is valid and all the premises are true. Can an argument have all true premises as well as a true conclusion and be invalid? Inductive Argument Involve a somewhat weaker link Deductive Argument Is valid just if it logically impossible for its between premises and conclusion The premises of an inductive are supposed to make conclusion probable In a good argument the premises make the conclusion probable to relevant degree. premises to be all true and conclusion to be false. 2) Explain the difference between Apriori and Aposteriori Propositions. Apriori Propositions can be known independently of experience. Knowledge of their truth doesnt depend on experience, at least in logical sense. (EXP: 5+7=12) Aposteriori Propositions can only be known to be true by experience Exp: Some dogs bite, Hurricane Irene hit NY Socrates Method of Philosophy ( The Elenchus) Search for definitions. (What is it like to be pious just or true) Drawing out the consequences of a claim to see what it entails? Showing a claim a leads to contradictions, incoherence or other unacceptable consequences, gives reasons to reject A. Asks questions basically leads to reductio. Engages in philosophical investigation by asking questions and showing contradictions showing elenchus. In Euthyphro Socrates exemplifies his method (Elenchus) when he asks Euthyphro what is Pious and What is the Impious, in regards to Euthyphro...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2012 for the course PHI 107 taught by Professor Mattskene during the Fall '08 term at Syracuse.

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PHI 107 Exam 1 Review - PHI 107 Exam 1 Review PART 1...

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