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Gazzaniga 03 - Gazzaniga 3 Biological Foundations Genetic...

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Gazzaniga 3: Biological Foundations Genetic Basis of Psychological Science - Behavioral Genetics: How genes and environment influence psych activity (Mind, brain, behavior) - Variation through sex - Monozygotic Twins (Identical) - Dizygotic Twins (Fraternal) - Heredity: Transmission of Characteristics - Heritability: Statistical estimate of genetic portion of variation in trait (Population) - Social and environmental contexts influence genetic expression - Genetic expression can be modified Nervous System (If you’re cramming, I suggest looking at this the most!) - Resting Potential: Electrical charge inside is more negative (polarized) - Action Potential Neural Communication - Two types of Chemical Signals o Excitatory: Depolarize cell membrane, increase chance of neuron firing o Inhibitory: Polarize cell membrane, decrease chance of neuron firing - When a neuron fires… Sodium gates open and sodium flows in. Inside of the cell is slightly more positively charged. Potassium channels open and potassium flows out. Channels close, and the cell returns to negative charge (resting) - Depolarization moves across axon like a wave (propagation) - All or None Principal: Fires or it doesn’t…. neuron cannot partially fire - Presynaptic: Neuron that sends signal - Postsynaptic: Neuron that receives signal
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- Neurotransmitters in terminal button sends signals, receptors on postsynaptic receive them - Neurotransmitters and receptors are specific to each other - Influence of N. Transmitter in receptor is cut by… o Reuptake: N. Transmitters are taken back o Enzyme Deactivation: enzyme destroys transmitter substance o Autoreception: Signals presynaptic to stop releasing N. Transmitters o Drugs Agonists: Enhances N. Transmitter actions
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