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Gazzaniga 05 - Gazzaniga 5 Sensations and Perception How do...

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Gazzaniga 5: Sensations and Perception How do we Sense our World? - Sensation: Organ’s detection of and responses to external stimulus energy and how those responses are transmitted to the brain - Perception: Further processing of signals that result in internal representation - Sensory Coding: Sensory organs’ translations of physical properties into neural impulses o Transduction: Receptors pass impulses to receiving neurons, which pass it to the brain as neural impulses o Thalamus Cortex Interpretation Sense Taste Stimuli Molecules dissolved on tongue fluid Receptors Taste cells in taste buds Path to Brain Facial vagus nerves glossopharyngeal Smell Molecules dissolved in mucus membrane Olfactory neuron’s sensitive ends Olfactory nerve Touch Skin Pressure Touch Neurons Spinal Nerves Hearing Sound Waves Hair cells in cochlea Auditory Nerves Vision Light Waves Rods in Retina Optic Nerves - Qualitative Info: Different kinds of stimuli - Quantitative Info: Levels of stimuli (loudness, brightness, etc.) - Coarse Coding: Sensory qualities are coded by few different types of receptors - Psychophysics: Psychological experience of physical stimuli o Sensory Thresholds Absolute : Minimum intensity of stimulation before you experience a sensation (ie: highest possible pitch you cannot hear) Difference : Noticeable different between two stimuli Weber’s Law : Noticeable difference is based on proportion of original stimulus rather than different amounts Signal Detection Theory : Detecting stimulus requires making judgments about its presence/absence based on subjective interpretations of ambiguous information
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Response Bias : Tendency to report detecting the signal in an ambiguous trial. (ie: In two patients, more likely to report a broken bone than a tumor) Sensory Adaptation : decrease in sensitivity to a constant level of stimulation (ie: getting used to loud music) o Stimulus Sense Trial Hit: Stimulus is present and the observer detects it Miss: Present, but observer does not detect False Alarm: Not present, but observer detects it Correct Rejection: Not present and observer does not detect Basic Sensory Processes -
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