Ch 1 Matter, Measurement, Problem Solving

Ch 1 Matter, Measurement, Problem Solving - Chem...

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Chem 105a—1/12/11 A. 1.2 Law vs. Theory a. Law summarizes what happens experimentally thru observations; no exceptions to law a.i. You always want one b/c always hold true, but most observations don’t become this b/c always find exception (ex. law of universal gravitation— no theory behind it tho) b. Theories attempt to explain observations/laws; may not be absolutely correct, flawed (ex. imploding star—but no law about when it’ll implodes) b.i. Not necessarily true or not, but has it been disproven and is there a better one B. 1.3 States of Matter a. Matter is anything that has mass + occupies space; exists in 3 classical states (solid, liquid, gas) + many non-classical states (plasma, glass, liquid crystal, superfluids…) a.i. a specific instance of matter = a substance —can be classified acc to its state (physical form) and composition (basic components that make it up) b. States of Matter: Solid, Liquid, Gas b.i. Solid : definite shape, definite volume—atoms/molecules pack close to each other in fixed locations b.i.1. solid matter can be crystalline —atoms/molecules are in patterns with long-range, repeating order b.i.1.a. ex. table salt + diamond—well-ordered geometric shapes b.i.2. or amorphous —atoms/molecules do NOT have long-range order b.i.2.a. ex. glass + plastic are amorphous solids b.ii. Liquid : NO definite shape (take shape of container), definite volume b.ii.1. atoms/molecules pack about as closely as they do in solid matter, but are free to move relative to each other b.iii. Gas : NO definite shape (take shape of container), NO definite volume (take volume of container) b.iii.1. atoms/molecules with lots of space between them, free to move relative to one another b.iii.2. are compressible —can make them closer together b.iii.3. gases at room temp: helium, nitrogen, CO 2 c. Composition of matter: Elements, Compounds, Mixtures c.i. Pure substances—have constant compositions; elements + compounds; made up of only one component + composition is invariant (doesn’t vary from one sample to another) c.i.1. components: can be individual atoms or groups of atom joined together c.i.1.a. ex. helium, water, table salt are all pure substances c.i.2. 2 types: c.i.2.a. Element : a substance that cannot be decomposed chemically into simpler substances
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c.i.2.b. Compound : a substance composed of two or more
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Ch 1 Matter, Measurement, Problem Solving - Chem...

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