ch 4 Chem quantities + aqueous rxns

Ch 4 Chem - Ch 4 Class Notes A 4.2 Reaction Stoichiometry a coefficients in a chemical reaction specify the relative amounts in moles of each of

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Ch. 4 Class Notes A. 4.2 Reaction Stoichiometry a. coefficients in a chemical reaction specify the relative amounts in moles of each of the substances involved in the reaction b. stoichiometry : numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a balanced chemical equation b.i. allows us to predict amounts of products that will form in a chemical rxn based on amount of reactants and vice versa B. 4.3 Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield + Percent Yield a. limiting reactant/reagent : the reactant that limits amount of product in a chemical reaction a.i. least amount of moles in reactants a.ii. the ones not limiting are said to be in “excess” b. theoretical yield : amount of product that can be made in a chemical reaction based on amount of limiting reactant b.i. actual yield : amount of product actually produced by a chemical rxn c. percent yield : % of theoretical yield that was actually attained (actual/theoretical) C. 4.4 Solution Concentration + Solution Stoichiometry a. solution = homogenous mixture of 2 substances a.i. solvent = majority component of mixture a.ii. solute = minority component of mixture a.iii. aqueous sol’n = one in which WATER is the solvent b. Solution Concentration b.i. dilute solution = small amount of solute relative to solvent b.ii. concentrated sol’n = large amount of solute relative so solvent b.iii. Molarity (M) = b.iv. stock solutions = solutions in concentrated forms b.iv.1. M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 (M = molarity, V= volume) D. 4.5 Types of Aqueous Sol’ns + Solubility a. Electrolyte + Nonelectrolyte Sol’ns a.i. electrolytes : substances that dissolve in water to form sol’ns that conduct electricity a.i.1. such as NaCl, they dissociate completely into ions as dissolve in water, and are considered strong electrolytes a.i.2. Strong electrolytes completely ionize in water. (100%) 3 types: a.i.2.a. Soluble salts—NaCl, KBr, LiNO 3… a.i.2.b. Strong acids—HCl, HNO 3, H 2 SO 4 , HClO 4 (ionize into cations/hydrogen protons?) a.i.2.c. Strong bases—NaOH, KOH (ionize into hydroxides) a.i.3. dissolved ions act as charge carriers, allowing sol’n to conduct electricity a.ii. nonelectrolytes : compounds that do not dissociate into ions when dissolved in water—don’t conduct electricity
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a.ii.1. sugar = molecular compound and most molecular compounds (except acids) do not dissociate into ions, but into smaller intact molecules—but they aren’t ions, so don’t conduct electricity a.iii. Acids = molecular compounds, but they do ionize when dissolve in water a.iii.1. strong acid = one that completely ionizes in a sol’n—also strong electrolytes a.iii.1.a. ex) HCl a.iii.2. weak acid = do not completely ionize in water (only small
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2012 for the course CHEM 105ALg taught by Professor Bau during the Spring '07 term at USC.

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Ch 4 Chem - Ch 4 Class Notes A 4.2 Reaction Stoichiometry a coefficients in a chemical reaction specify the relative amounts in moles of each of

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