Ch 12 Solutions

Ch 12 Solutions - Ch 12 Solutions (only 12.2, 12.5-7) A....

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Ch 12 Solutions (only 12.2, 12.5-7) A. 12.2 Types of Solutions + Solubility a. aqueous sol’ns : water is the solvent, and a solid/liquid/gas is the solute b. solubility —amount of the substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent c. solutions: just needs to be homogenous (can’t see individual ingredients/components) mixtures of two or more substances c.i. spontaneous mixing is energetically favorable c.ii. steel = iron and carbon (thus, steel is a solution—doesn’t need to be a liquid) c.iii. air = solution, club soda (water + CO 2 ), alcohol (ethanol + water) d. formation of solution doesn’t necessarily lower PE entropy : measure of energy randomization or energy dispersal in a system d.i. pervasive tendency for energy to spread out or disperse whenever it is not restrained from doing so is why ideal gases mix e. Like Dissolves Like e.i. a solute will dissolve in a solvent if they both have similar structures e.ii. polar dissolves polar, nonpolar dissolves nonpolar B. 12.5 Solution Composition a. b. molarity (M) = moles of solute/ volume of solution (not solvent) (L) c. molality ( m ) = moles of solute/ mass of solvent (kg) c.i. molality is calculated from solvent mass c.ii. independent of temperature c.ii.1. molarity depends on volume, and volume varies with temp, so M varies w/ temp, but molality does not c.iii. molarity is calculated from solution volume c.iv. mass is additive, volume is not c.iv.1. 5g of solution + 5g of solution always is 10 g, but not with 5 ml + 5 mL c.iv.2. molality/molarity are close for dilute aqueous solutions d. mole fraction = moles of solute/ total moles of solute + solvent e. mole percent = mole fraction x 100% C. 12.6 Colligative Properties: Vapor Pressure Lowering, Freezing Pt Depression, BP
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Ch 12 Solutions - Ch 12 Solutions (only 12.2, 12.5-7) A....

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