11 Geometrical Multiplication of a vector by a scalar. Positive scalar: The direction is unchanged, the length is multiplied by the scalar. Negative scalar: The direction is reversed, the length is multiplied by the magnitude of the scalar. Geometrical Subtraction of vectors There are two general methods: Head-to-tail: Multiply one of the vectors by (-1) and add the results. This is shown in the left two diagrams. Tail-to-tail: Place the vectors tail to tail, then draw the difference starting from the tip of the one that is subtracted, and going to the tip of the other. The right hand diagrams show addition and subtraction.
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