Intelligent Design

Intelligent Design - Intelligent Design & Creationism...

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Unformatted text preview: Intelligent Design & Creationism v. Evolution v. Tim Ullmann and Michael Heller Tim • 1635: The first public school is founded in the U.S. • 1735: Carl Linnaeous publishes Systema Naturae, which is the beginning of modern biological classification of species • 1749: Compte de Buffon suggests life may have originated from a single ancestor • 1802: Archbishop William Paley publishes Natural Theology, in which he argues that God has manifested Himself throughout nature • 1809: Charles Darwin is born Carl Linnaeous • 1831-1836: Darwin takes a five year voyage on the H.M.S. Beagle • 1856: First Neanderthal skull discovered in Germany • 1859: Darwin publishes his On the Origin of Species • c.1865: Scientists begin to accept evolution; it is taught at Cambridge University • 1865: Gregor Mendel studies heredity in pea plants Darwin’s work is one of the most influential papers in the history of biology • c.1870: Paleontology is a rapidly growing science as more and more fossils are discovered around the world • 1871: Darwin publishes The Decent of Man, an expansion of his previous work which details human evolution • 1896: The discovery of radioactivity leads to a more accurate estimate of the age of the earth: 4.3 billion years • 1905-1915: The Fundamentals is published as a series of pamphlets which attempt to reconcile evolutionary theory with the Bible The new science of paleontology adds fuel to the evolution debate • 1913: Flood Geology provides a new explanation of the origins of life; it hold’s that Noah’s flood is responsible for all fossils on Earth • 1915: Many southern states adopt laws which require daily Bible readings in school • 1919: The World Christian Fundamentalist Association (WCFA) is founded • 1923: The first anti-evolution bills are passed, spurred by a growing movement lead by William Jennings Bryan William Jennings Bryan • 1925: Tennessee enacts a law banning the teaching of evolution in its public schools eventually giving rise to one of the most famous trials in American history • The ACLU places advertisements seeking help in challenging the law • John Scopes, a science teacher in Dayton, TN, agrees to help • Scopes is charged with braking the law and goes to trial that summer • William Jennings Bryan leads the prosecution and Clarence Darrow argues for the defense • The court rules in favor of the defense, however, both sides claim victory in the court of public opinion • 1925-1930: Anti-evolution bills spread throughout the country, and publishers begin removing evolutionary theory from biology books • c.1942: Evolutionary education in the United States reaches a “low point” • 1947-1948: The Supreme Court bans teaching any form of religion in public schools • 1953: Amino acids are synthesized in a laboratory and the structure of DNA is discovered • 1967: Human and ape DNA are shown to be remarkably similar • 1970-1980: “Creation science” is born • 1974: “Lucy”, the 4 million year old skeleton of an upright walking ape, is found in Africa • 1981: “Equal Time” bill passed in Louisiana and Arkansas; it was overturned by the Supreme Court six years later • c.1990: Intelligent Design theory is born at the same time as creationism is spreading worldwide • 1996: Pope John Paul II speaks in favor of evolution Pope John Paul II • 1999: Kansas drops evolution, the big bang theory, and all references suggesting that the Earth is billions of years old from its curriculum • 2001: A Gallup poll finds that when Americans are asked to characterize their beliefs about human origins 57% choose creationism over evolution • Intelligent Design (ID) is a theory that holds that the universe is too complex to have been formed without the guidance of a “higher being” • Not specific to any one religion • Applies to all of science, not just biological science • Has been the topic of much debate around the country • The incredible complexity and diversity of life • Symmetry and beauty in nature • Scientist inability to explain the beginning of the universe • The big bang theory implies that nothing existed beforehand • Modern physics suggests that there may be other universes An artist’s depiction of what the big bang may have looked like • Some physical constants which govern astronomical forces must be accurate to an extremely high degree in order to explain natural phenomena • In Darwin’s Black Box author Michael Behe proposes that the “irreducible complexity” of the human eye and other biological “machines” is strong evidence that evolution is flawed 1: After the retina translates visual signals to electrical signals the information is sent to the thalmus 3 3 2: The thalmus relays the info to the occipital lobe 3. The occipital lobe relays the info to the cortex 2 1 • There are many varieties of creationism: 1. Literal interpretation of the Bible • The Earth has even been dated by some creationists, who believe that it is about 6,000 years old 1. Belief that the “six days” to which the Bible refers represent eras rather than days 2. “Flood Geology”: Noah’s flood killed the dinosaurs and is responsible for the presence of fossils 3. Science is an attempt by the Devil to confuse us and force us to turn away from God Evolution Evolution Evolution Populations of organisms pass on viable Populations traits to future generations traits How organisms changed over time Through exploration, can find proof Empirical proof validates evolution Enforced by Darwin’s “natural selection” Aided by genetics of Gregor Mendel Charles Darwin Charles Born in February 12, 1809 Studied medicine and theology Visited the Galapagos Islands – Large variety of organisms Large Published The Origin of Species in 1859 Published The – “Natural selection” Criticized for undermining the church’s claims Provided proof of evolution Started out Christian and ended up Agnostic Exploration Exploration Galapagos Islands – Possesses the most diverse Possesses wildlife wildlife – Allowed Darwin to see Allowed connections between similar organisms organisms – Preserved organisms and their Preserved ancestors ancestors Studied fossils and live Studied organisms organisms – Carefully collected his Carefully observations observations – Proposed theories to explain Proposed similarities in fossils and living organisms organisms – Noticed various types of finches Noticed at each island at On The Origin of Species On By Means of Natural Selection Published: November 24, 1859 Took Darwin several years to publish his theories, due to the Took implications with the church and society implications Explained evolution by means of natural selection Wrote in a colloquial style, accessible to the normal public Book was sold out the first day it was released (1250 copies) Religious leaders and scientists were outraged with Darwin’s Religious conclusions conclusions Last sentence: – “There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been There originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, the whilst this planet has gone circling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved." Went through six editions, so that he could refute counter-arguments Darwin’s Theories Darwin’s Organisms change over time – Extinction – loss of organisms Organisms come from common ancestors – Creation of branches of organisms Organisms change over large periods of time Mechanism of evolution is “natural selection” Development of “Natural Selection” Theory “Natural Great minds of the past and present – Malthus – “competition for resources” – Charles Lyell’s Principles of Geology Charles Principles Geological features change over large periods of time Strata – sedimentary layers formed by periods of time Uniformitarianism – erosion and deposition of sediment – Adam Smith (The Wealth of Nations) Capitalism → Competition Capitalism Influenced Social Darwinism Natural Selection Natural The organisms with the “best” The characteristics will survive while the lesser, more dependent organisms die off organisms Through fossils and extensive Through observations in the Galapagos Islands, Darwin concluded that all life comes from an original species species – Modern DNA evidence supports Modern these claims these Species have great fertility Population remains roughly the Population same through time same Resources are limited, leads to Resources struggle for survival struggle Variation in species is rampant Variation is heritable What produces natural selection? What Heritable variation – Camouflage, beak size, thickness of skin, and defense mechanisms. Camouflage, Differential survival and reproduction – Diverse mechanisms allow the “stronger” species to survive and beat out Diverse the weaker ones the Examples – Plants who grow taller are able to escape shade and live longer – Animals that have better camouflage are able to hide from predators and Animals live longer than ones that do not live Process of Natural Selection Process Evolution of Homo sapiens Evolution Evolution of Birds Evolution Evolution of Mammals Evolution Reaction Reaction Fueled support for theory of Fueled evolution evolution Aided by large amount of empirical Aided support support Made humans feel less permanent Made and powerful and – Only around for 100,000 million years Lessened church’s influence in Lessened society society – Church had to back the description from Church the Bible the People who accepted new theory People became more skeptical of religious teachings (Bible) teachings Result of His Research Result Social Darwinism – Economic and social factors influence success in life Economic Communism – Karl Marx (Communist Manifesto) Eugenics – Holocaust Creating a new superior race The Controversy The In the News In Italy – Trial between parish priest and atheist – Test the faith and its reasoning United States – Individuals enter their own “tribes” of thought Topeka, Kansas - 1999 – Remove evolution form the science curriculum Harrisburg, Pennsylvania - 2005 – Intelligent design removed from curriculum • December 20th, 2005: Judge John E. Jones III rules that teaching intelligent design in public high schools in the state of Pennsylvania violates separation of Church and state. • January 11th, 2006: Parents sue a California school board over a philosophy course in intelligent design, claiming that it is biased towards the theory • January 18th, 2006: The Vatican issues a statement that the ruling banning ID from Pennsylvania’s public school’s is “correct” Judge John E. Jones III • Currently organizations such as the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and other groups battle religious organizations to prevent ID from being introduced into public school science curricula. Inherit the Wind Inherit Based on the 1925 Based Scopes “Monkey” trial Scopes Directed by: Stanley Directed Kramer (1960) Kramer • Inherit the Wind is a dramatized version of the Scopes “Monkey” Trial, and is not meant to be an accurate historical representation. However, some have argued that it has become representative of the current controversy in modern courts. Do you agree? • Is intelligent Design a science? Can it become a science? • Does it belong in public school classrooms? • Do you feel there is enough evidence to support Darwin’s theories? • Should someone be respected as a scientist, or more specifically as a biologist, if they don’t believe in evolution? • Do universities have the right to fire professors because of their beliefs in evolution? • Is it discrimination to block scientists from receiving funding if they don’t believe in evolution? References References Evolution. 2001. WGBH Educational Foundation and Clear 2001. Blue Sky Productions, Inc. 23 2006 <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/>. Evolution and Natural Selection. 02 Nov. 2005. University 02 of Michigan. 22 Jan. 2006 <http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/c <http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/c urrent/lectures/selection/selection.html>. urrent/lectures/selection/selection.html>. Grossman, Ron. "Christ, Darwin on Trial." Chicago Tribune. 29 Jan. Grossman, Chicago 2006. 29 Jan. 2006 <http://www.chicagotribune.com>. Intelligent Design Network. 2005. 24 Jan. 2006 2005. <http://www.intelligentdesignnetwork.org/>. Margolis, Jon. "Tribal America defends right to ignore facts." Chicago Margolis, Chicago Tribune. 29 Jan. 2006. 29 Jan. 2006 <http://www.chicagotribune.com>. O'neil, Dennis. Darwin and Natural Selection. Jan. 2006. O'neil, Darwin Jan. 23 Jan. 2006 <http://anthro.palomar.edu/evolve/evolve_2.htm>. <http://anthro.palomar.edu/evolve/evolve_2.htm>. Wikipedia. 2006. 23 Jan. 2006 2006. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page>. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page>. ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/16/2012 for the course BIOL_SCI 108 taught by Professor Goldberg during the Winter '06 term at Northwestern.

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