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E102 D - 1111 Perspectives from the Past P RIMARY S OURCES...

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Perspectives from the Past PRIMARY SOURCES IN WESTERN CIVILIZATIONS 3rd Edition VOLUME 2 From the Early Modern Era Through Contemporary Times ®a JAMES M. BROPHY JOSHUA COLE STEVEN EPSTEIN JOHN ROBERTSON THOMAS MAX SAFLEY W • W • NORTON & COMPANY t>?t NEW YORK LONDON
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W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People's Institute, the adult education division of New York City's Cooper Union. The Nortons soon expanded their program beyond the Institute, publishing books by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By mid- century, the two major pillars of Norton's publishing program-trade books and college texts-were firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its employees, and today-with a staff of four hundred and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional titles published each year-W. W. Norton & Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees. Copyright © 2005, 2002, 1998 by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Perspectives from the past : primary sources in Western civilizations I James M. Brophy- [et al.].-3rd ed. p. em. Includes bibliographical references. Contents: v. 1. From the ancient Near East through the age of absolutism-v. 2. From the early modern era through contemporary times. ISBN 0-393-92569-2 (vol. 1 : pbk.)-ISBN 0-393-92570-6 (vol. 2 : pbk.) 1. Civilization, Western-History-Sources. I. Brophy, James M. CB245.P45 2005 909'.09821-dc22 2004061730 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10ll0 www.wwnorton.com W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., Castle House, 75/76 Wells Street, London W1 T 3QT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
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350 18 ®a THE FRENCH REVOLUTION & ,'l L." 7 /1 /"J ,' "'\~ ''-/? /\\/ f \IV' '\;,J The French revolutionary and Napoleonic eras, 1789-1815, launched the mod- ern period in European history. Europe had so irrevocably changed after 1815 that contemporaries distinguished the period before 1789 as the old regime. To be sure, many features of the old regime continued into the new era, but the sentiment of sudden rupture was largely valid. In various dimensions of public life, the radical transformations of the French Revolution rendered many pre- revolutionary attitudes toward society and politics obsolete. Following the abolition of feudalism, the declaration of civic equality, and the subordination of monar- chy to national political sovereignty, traditional authority became irretrievable. The areas of French society (aristocrats, civil servants, professionals, mer- chants, artisans, urban workers, peasants) willing to reform, if not dismantle, absolutist monarchy established the revolution's legitimacy. The wide range of grievances that had accumulated in the French provinces and cities provided the broad social base for the upheaval of 1789, just as the prevailing emphasis of eighteenth-century letters on applying reason, natural law, and social utility to public affairs offered a general intellectual framework.
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