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Unformatted text preview: What and how we hear Visual n hearing system very similar- suggests organization follows same scheme- some variations here and there sound and light wave 1. whats sound 2. how is sound amplified by outer and middle ear- rods n cons (ojo)- hair cells (oreja) 3. how do hair cells transduce sound into action potentials in action potential- optic nerves cross n make first synapse in the genicular thalamus 4. whats the pathway to cortex- Light photoreceptors on retina (rods and cones) 1 st synapse at bipolar cells 2 nd synapse at ganglion cells axons of ganglion cells make optic nerve axons extend to lateral genicular nucleus of thalamus primary visual cortex in occipital lobe of cortex secondary visual cortex synapse ? with association cells- Sound outer ear ear canal eardrum malleus, incus, stapes cochlea cilia attached to hair cells axons of hair cells make up auditory nerve 1st synapse at superior olivary nucleus 2 nd synapse at inferior colliculi 3 rd synapse at medial geniculate nucleus of thalamus final synapse at primary auditory cortex 5. how does the brain code for pitch (frequency) and for location of sound- what n where 6. is coding influenced by early experience- humans move head, not ear unlike some animals- language is both heard n perceived- sound is not just absorbed, its analyzed/interpretated by brain () 1. Sound- pressure in the air- physical dimension/perceptual dimension: o amplitude (intensity)/loudness; o frequency/pitch; o complexity/timbre [pic] Division of ear- Outer ear : channel to tympanic membrane o Ear canal filled with wax o Has membrane ear drum- Middle ear : ossicles o 3 bones (malleus, incus, stapes) o Motor nerve, cranial verb o Muscle can hold onto incus, stiffen it to dampen loud sound- Inner ear : cochlea o Oval window o Sound waves get moved to waves of liquid o Fluid filled o Fluid moves through cochlea o Chochlea has receptos for sound called hair cells o Tip has cilia that waves Audition Anatomy air pressure waves enter the auditory canal, and impinge upon tympanic membrane drum)...
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- Fall '08