24 feb 2010 molbio

24 feb 2010 molbio - Mol bio lecture notes 24 February 2010...

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Mol bio lecture notes 24 February 2010 Ty elements and Safe havens Ty elements are found in yeast – they are viral like retroviruses. These viral particles are unusual in that they cannot escape from one cell and infect another These elements integrate into very specific places in the genome. For instance RNA polymerase III transcribes tRNA genes. They Ty1, Ty2, Ty3 and Ty4 elements insert themselves in the regulatory regions of tRNA genes. The Ty5 element inserts itself into regions that are transcriptionally silent By inserting into safe zones, they Ty insertions do not disrupt vital cellular genes, the yeast cell survives and the Ty elements is not eliminated. T y elements are coding signals for viruses. They integrate into the cell the same way transposons integrate into the cell o Frontrunners of viruses? Typically when they get into the yeast cell, they do not want to leave. o They ensure that that cell does not die – because then they will die. You wouldn’t want them to jump into DNA polymerase etc, anything that’s important to the replication of the cell because the cell would die due to mutations. So it’s evolved mechanisms that are crucial to the defense of the cell. Ty elements are found at a high number next to something that’s safe – doesn’t involve proteins to stay safe Antibody production Antibody production occurs in the B cells and T cells of mammals. An antibody is composed of two protein chains: a heavy (H) chain and a light (L) chain o They heavy and light just refer to how big the chain is. They combine to make the antibody. o
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24 feb 2010 molbio - Mol bio lecture notes 24 February 2010...

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