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102 lecture biol 101

102 lecture biol 101 - October 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 Last week...

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October 2 1. Last week: 1. electron transport chain 2. production of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation 2. Oxidative phosphorylation 1. electron transport chain - 5 complexes (slide) 1. of these, 1, 3, and 4 are redox driven proton pumps 1. these are large membrane integral proteins that’ll convert 1 substrate to oxidized form, coupled to conversion of another molecule from oxidized to reduced form 2. use energy released during this process to translocate protons from one side of membrane to other side of membrane 3. important to notice sides of membranes 4. in case of mitochondria, protons translocated from matrix side to intermembrane space 5. membrane, which are lipid bilayer, are impermeable to charged molecules and protons cannot come back through lipid bilayer by themselves 6. once they are translocated, need to find another molecule that’ll let them go across and release energy 7. this is role of ATP synthase 8. at this time, will use this energy to literally take ADP and inorganic phosphate to make ATP 9. complex 2, which uses FADH2, is not redox driven proton pump (only 1,3,4, which are NADH dehydrogenases, cytochrome BC complexes, cytochrome C oxidases are proton pumps) 10. link between complex 1 and 3 are wired to quinone molecules 11. link between complex 3 and 4 are wire to cytochrome 2. list of cofactors in them 1. cofactors are not only confine some of them to some of respiratory chains, but they all are energetically organized in such a way that the highest internal energy containing molecule is NADH and electron will come from NADH to start chain, all the way down to oxygen, which is acceptor of electrons at the end of the day to make water 2. NADH dehydrogenate of complex 1 will have FMN and iron sulfur clusters as cofactors 3. complex 2 will have FAD in iron sulfur 4. complex 3 will have cytochrome C and cytochrome B in iron sulfur 5. complex 4 will have 2 cytochrome as cofactor 6. link between 1 and 3 is through quinone 7. link between 3 and 4 is through cytochrome C 8. end result of all this complex partway is to let energy release slowly in controlled manner so that that energy can be productively used to translocate protons and provide energy to ATP synthase to make ATP 9. if you let glucose to burn, will end up with yield of -686 kcal/ mole <--internal energy present in glucose
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1. need 7.3 kcal/mole to take ADP add to inorganic phosphate to make ATP 2. overall yield- about 90 molecules (-686/7.3) 3. but rather gives about 32-34 molecules, instead of theoretical 90something molecules 4. body --about 30% 3. limitations on glycolysis 1. NAD+, oxidized form of NADH, is rate limiting factor and can push reaction little bit more by using fermentation partway 1. however, even if we have everything in great excess, there’s still additional controlling elements in whole glucose degradation partways 2. of 10 steps of glycolysis, PFK <--- remember! 1.
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102 lecture biol 101 - October 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 Last week...

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