• Emphatic meaning – “I didn’t say you were stupid” emphasizing different words leads to different meaning • Syntactic meaning – “Andy hit the bus” “The bus hit Andy” • Verbal Codes o Defined – what are verbal code systems? Verbal code systems involve the use of language, expressed in the form of words Can be communicated orally, written, in gestures or mechanically o Universal characteristics of verbal codes or language Specialization – primary purpose of language is communication Productivity (aka openness or creativity) – verbal codes or language have productivity • Notion of novel utterances • Creation of new words and meanings over time Displacement – language can refer to past, present and future tense Evanescence – language is rapidly fading and short lived (refers to spoken language) sounds don’t last long when spoken (except on video, they can be replayed over and over) Arbitrariness – meanings of words are arbitrary
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