VIRUS&PHAGE

VIRUS&PHAGE - BIOL 351 Fall 2012 Study questions on...

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BIOL 351 Fall 2012 1) In what ways are viruses different from cellular organisms? In what ways are they similar? Different: viruses contain only genetic material and a protein coat, no other organelles; does not undergo metabolism; cannot live without a host; have a very high rate of gene transfer Similar: they have genetic material 2) What is the basic structure of a virus? The nucleic acid genome is surrounded by a protein capsid, and the capsid is made up of many subunits of a small number of proteins. Sometimes they have envelopes that contain spikes (viral proteins embedded in the envelope). 3) Define the following terms: capsid, tail, virion, temperate virus, lytic virus Capsid= the protein coat or shell that surrounds a virion’s nucleic acid Tail= Virion= a complete virus particle Temperate virus= a virus that infects bacteria and establishes a lysogenic relationship with its host rather than causing immediate lysis Lytic virus= a virus that is replicated in the host cell an causes death and lysis of the cell 4) Four nucleic acid forms can serve as viral genomes. Describe each. Name an example of a virus with that genome structure for each type of nucleic acid. ssDNA = linear or circular dsDNA = linear or circular; most bacterial viruses ssRNA = usually segmented genome (genomes that consists of more than one piece of RNA, each segment codes for one protein) most plant viruses dsRNA = usually segeented genome; rare but are known to infect animals, plants, fungi and at least one bacterial species. *all four types are found in animal viruses 5) Describe the structure of a generic viral envelope. A membranous layer with spikes inserted into it.
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VIRUS&PHAGE - BIOL 351 Fall 2012 Study questions on...

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