study of garden culture, intense cultivation of plants. It influences
humans in: food/drink, photosynthesis/O, medicine, furniture, recreation,
religion, literature, holidays, habitat, air quality. Fields
: fruit, flower (herbaceous ornamental) spices/herbs/medicinals, vegetables, turf, trees (woody
10K y/o food crop 4K y/o ornamentals. Cultivation:
NA- walnuts, pecans, SF seeds, cranberries. China- rice, soybean, banana.
Af- coffee, oil palm, okra. First horts- Averro, Langely-mazes, Bartram-cross bred.
all living organisms have: metabolism, growth and reporduction (asexual), food, change in env’t. Parts:
- living but dormant.
cotyledon: source of food, radical: root. Monocot-II venation, flower in 3s (corn) Dicot (bean seed). Angio/gynmosperm- protection of seed: closed
seeds flowering plants(fruits- fleshy/dry); naked seeds: conifers (gingko, cones). Dispersal: wind, water, birds, animals. Large seeds produce slower,
predation, planted deepr, hard dispersal.
anchorage/absorption/conduction/storage. Tap root- modified, deep to w/stand drought (carrot)
Fibrous Root- wider (corn). Advantious Root- grows off stem (corn) N Fix’n- pull up N on legumes (pods) fix soil.
- growing tip of
plant(cell division) Apical shoot M-grass; Axillaries M, Apical root M.
-plant growth + reproduction.
bundles-bunched, floral parts in 3s (autum crocus) dicot-vb-ring, floral parts in 4s. Storage
modified (potato, dahlia, gladiolus, corm) Tuber-
potato, above ground. Rhizome- ginger, below ground.
simple-single leaf blade, undivided, one ax. bud. Compound- x leaf blade, dividied,
1 ax. Bud. Pinnate-net ven., leaflets come out at various pts. Palmate-II net ven. Leaflet out of palm of stem-central. Arrangement- alternate-1/node,
opposite-2/node, whorl-3/node. Flower repro:
4 whorls= sepals, petals, stamen, pistil(carple). Incomplete-1or>whorls missing. Imperfect-only one
sex part. Cant have imperfect and complete flowers. moneicious- sex on same plant.
: Pollan lands on stigma from anther. Tubes
form, goes down style. Fertilizes ovule. Fruit- fleshy:
- berry(tomato), pepo(cantalope), pome(apple), drupe(peach).
indehiscent): aggregate, multiple
: dehiscent-ripens and dries out (grains, legumes), indehiscent-seed never dries (corn, SF.
shared-nucleus, mitochondria, rhibosome, plastide. Unique to plants-
: provides celluloic ethanol, photosyn, vascular dead/live cells.
- photosyn. Tissue: Dermal- cuticle, trichomes, stomata/guard cells. Vascular- conducting-
: move water, dead@maturity.
move organic mat. living. Conduct by
-loss of water by evaporation, cools plant 98% water used. Prevent t: cool temp, less humidity,
less wind, less bright light, more stomata open/closing. Absorption: roots – by soil(sandy retain < clay)