Review2 - Review for 2nd Midterm 1. Does teenage...

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Review for 2 nd Midterm 1. Does teenage childbearing cause disadvantage? Explain -Teenage births don’t cause disadvantage but women that have a teen birth by and large would have had worse outcomes than wealthier teens 2. Explain the difference between institutional, companionate, and individualization in marriage. Institutional: regime of male authority Companionate : after 1960s – still a stark division of gender roles but togetherness and friendship is increasingly important value Individualization : focus on personal fulfill and self-development. Strict roles in marriage are dead 3. Marriage is now described as a capstone experience. What does this mean? Marriage gives individuals fulfillment of life goals 4. Explain the following interpretations of cohabitation: pure relationship; precursor to marriage; alternative to marriage. Pure Relationship: (Anthony Gibbins) – relationship for its own sake. People live together simply because they like to like each other Precursor to marriage: testing ground for marriage. Move in together to in order to see if marriage would work Alternative to marriage: pretty unusual among heterosexuals in US. Is only available alternative for gays and lesbians in most states. Few cohabiting unions last more than 5 years 5. What is the marriage market theory? Originated in economics by the functionalist school of social theory in 1940s-50s (immediate post war years) to maximize utility, happiness can be viewed like an international trade market Will only match up if people can produce more together than they could on their own Governed by: supply, preferences, and resources Men more explicit about this process than women 6. Describe the specialization and independence models of marriage. Specialization model: trading comparative advantages. Men are better at wage earning, command a higher hourly wage than women and women are better at homemaking. - Efficient (Becker) people get married because it’s efficient and people get more by pooling together
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- Risky (Oppenheimer) makes economic sense but only as long as you are married. Women who specialize in homemaking and then get divorced have nowhere to go. Men who specialize in wage earning and then get divorced cannot care for themselves - Older model – 1950s Independence model: income pooling and bargaining - Economies of scale –savings that come from size (cheaper to move in together) - Men look for women who can work so they can pool their incomes - Increasingly dominant model today 7. Are there benefits of marriage that cohabitants do not also have? If so, what are they? - Marriage as an institution is a socially enforced public commitment (enforceable trust, upheld by the law) - Expectation of permanence – resource pooling - Legal privileges, derived benefits – tax breaks, alimony, pensions, social security, Medicare o Stronger Insurance - Marital role behaviors – men reduce risky behaviors once in marriage (ex: drunk driving) 8. Explain the difference between pull and push factors for female labor force participation and name
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Review2 - Review for 2nd Midterm 1. Does teenage...

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