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9. Gender Slides FINAL

9. Gender Slides FINAL - Sociology of Sports Gender and...

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Sociology of Sports Gender and Sports
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Gender Stratification and Sports Societies expect men and women to learn and conform to specific gender roles “appropriate” for each sex Means for socialization: 1. Cultural factors 2. Social institutions
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Cultural Factor: Patriarchal Ideology Rise of modern sports fit with two major social changes: 1. American industrial revolution and the resulting “feminization” of work 2. Cult of Masculinity – linking manliness, heterosexuality, and physical activity Sports met men’s recreational needs and became an antidote for anxieties about effeminacy
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Cultural Factor: Gender Identities/Roles Parents initial and most pervasive force in shaping gender identities of children: Boys – encouraged to participate in sports Girls – discouraged after adolescence
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Cultural Issue: Assume female inferiority ow does biology matter? Women can’t compete in sports that rely on weight and height advantage But can compete in sports that rely on other factors (tennis, soccer)
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Male versus Female Athletes: Sorenstam vs. Woods Sorenstam Woods Career Wins 62 44 Season Earnings $1,638,314 (1 st ) $6,601,874 (1 st ) Average Scoring 69.45 (1 st ) 69.44 (1 st ) Greens in Regulations 82.4% (1 st ) 71.2% (5 th ) Driving Accuracy 76.1% (24 th ) 57.2% (170 th ) Distance 266.8 (3 rd ) 312.1 (2 nd ) Putts per Round 32.8 (144 th ) 28.9 (42 nd ) Source: St. John, Allen. 2005. :A Tiger of a Different Stripe.” Wall Street Journal .
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Cultural Factor: Views of Sexuality Failing to fit sports expectations linked to parent worries about sexuality (even about toddlers!) Assumptions that Athletic women = lesbians Non athletic men = gay Hyper-sexualized images of athletes respond to these assumptions
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Lebron James
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Anna Kournicova Reconfirms link between sports, masculinity, and heterosexuality
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Serena WIlliams
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Diverts our attention away from athletic skill Makes female athletes sexual objects
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