Exam 1 & Key - Fall 2009 MPP 3202

Exam 1 & Key - Fall 2009 MPP 3202 - lWRPfiZOZ [5:1...

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Unformatted text preview: lWRPfiZOZ [5:1 (Ex/mg 635% ’0 ‘9 9—4— 0‘? 1®®O®© 6®®©Q© 11®O©®© 16®O©®© 21®®©O© 26®©©O© 20®®®© 7®O©®© 12®®®Q© 17®®0®© 22®O®®© 270®©@@ 3®®©0© 8®®O®© 13®O©®® 18®d©®© 23®®©Q© 28®®©O© 4®O©®© 9®®©O© 14®®O®® 19®®©O© 24®®O®© 29®O©®© 5O®©®© 100®©@© 150®©@® 20®®©O® 250®©@© 30®®©O© ______________________________________________. M®®©O© 360®©®© 41®®©O© 46®®©0© 51®®©®© 56®®©®© n.®©®© 37®®©O© 42®O©®© 47®O©®© 52®®©®® 57®®©®© M®®©®O 38®®©0© 43®O©®© 48®0©®© 53®®©®© 58®®©®© MO®®®© 39®®®0® 440®©®® 49®®O®© 54®®©®© 59®®®®© fi®®®0© 400®©®© 45®®®0© 500®©®© 55®®®®© 60®®©@@ ________________________________________________ 61®®©®© 66®®©®© 71®®©®® 76®®©®© 81®®©®© 86®®©®© 62®®©®© 67®®©@© 72®®®®© 77®®©®® 82@®@@© 87®®©®© 63®®@@® 68®®©®© 73®®©®© 78®®©®® 83®®©@© 88®®©®® 64®®©®© 69®®©@® 74®®©®© 79®®©®© 84®@©@@ 89®®©@© 65®®©®© 70®®©®© 75®®©®© 80®®©®© 85®®©®® 90®®©®® _____________________________________________ m®®©®© 96®®©®® m1®®©®® ma®®©®® n1®®©®© H6®©©®© MG®©®© 97®®©®© w2®®©®© w7®®©@© H2®®©®© H7®®©®© W®®©®© 98®®©®® wa®®©®© ms®®©®© H3®®©®© ne®®©®® MG®©®© 99®®©®© w4®®©®© w9®®©®© H4®®©®© H9®®©®© %®®©@© wo®®©®© m5®®©®© H0®®©®© H5®®©®© no®®©®© .—_———____—__—____—__—____————____—————___————- 1m®®©®© us®®®®© m1®®©®© me®®©®© M1®®©®© M6®®©®© 1fl®®©@© m7®®©®© m2®®©®© w7®®©®© M2®®©®© M7®®©®© 1fi®®©®© ne®®©®© n3®®©®© ma®®©®© M3®®©®© M8®®©®© 1N®®©®© n9®®©®® m4®®©®© m9®®©®© M4®©©®© M9®®©®© 1fi®®©®© mo®®©®© m5®®©®© M0®®©®© M5®®®®© wo®®©®© UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI Physiology 3202,v"_ E:- I lst-Egafi; F3109, Séptember J14, 2009 Nanie Student Number I TA (or lab table number) I 'I __ Lab Day " I“ _ 1. PRINT your name, student number, TA (or lab table number) and lab day and above; ' 2. On the from .of the answer sheet print your name, today’s date, your TA’s name (or lab table number) and your lab day and . ' ' - 3. ‘Fill in the circles that cor-respond to your name. Follow the directions your last I name first. 4. Fill in the circles that correspond to your student number. You need not fill in any. other circles. ' . \ 5. the back of the ansiiver sheet fill in the circle that corresponds to the one, best “ answer to each question. - - I 6. Also mark your answers on the test itself. 7 . Turn in both your exam and answer sheet; Results will‘be [lasted about noon tomorrow on the bulletin board outside the'lab and on the course web site under “Library Services”. An answer key will posted in the 881116 places when all students have taken the'exam. ' ~ - v ' 1. What is physiology? It is the study of the chemical reactions of the body. It is the study of the structure of the body’s parts. It is the study of how the parts of the body work. It is the study of the effects of disease on the body. PPN!‘ 2. What body systems are most important in the integration and regulation of the body’s functions? The nervous and endocrine systems The endocrine and cardiovascular systems The respiratory and nervous systems The cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems PPN!‘ 3. What is homeostasis? 1. It is the ability to change the body’ 5 internal environment while maintaining body functions. 2. It is the ability to change the body’s functions as environmental conditions change. 3. It is the ability to maintain external environmental conditions in a range compatible with body functions. 4. It is the ability of the body to maintain a relatively constant internal environment. 4. What kind of control system operates when a change in one variable initiates events that produce further changes in that variable? A negative feedback system A positive feedback system A homeostatic control system Any of the above could produce such changes. PPN!‘ 5. What kind of control system operates when a change in one variable initiates changes that tend. To return that variable to its original value? A negative feedback system A positive feedback system A nonhomeostatic system Any of the above could produce such changes. P9P!" 6. Which of the following is NOT subject to homeostatic control? 1. Blood glucose level after a meal 2. Body temperature during exercise 3. Blood osmolarity 4. Oxytocin secretion during childbirth 7. Covalent bonds result from the sharing of electron pairs and are the weakest of the chemical bonds. 1. True 2. False 8. Why are polar compounds more soluble in water than are non-polar compounds? 1. Polar compounds are smaller than non—polar compounds and so dissolve more easily. 2. Because water interacts more readily with non-polar compounds than with polar compounds. 3. Because the polar areas of a solute can bind to areas of opposite polarity on water molecules and so dissolve more readily than non-polar compounds. 4. Polar and non-polar compounds have about the same solubility in water. 9. What do the ions C|-, HCO3- and PO43- have in common? 1. They are all the same size. 2. They are all cations. 3. They all have the same charge. 4. They are all anions. 10. What term describes a compound that has both polar and non-polar areas on the same molecule? 1. Amphipathic 2. Insoluble 3. Ambiguous 4. Amorphous 11. A certain compound has a molecular weight of 100. What is the concentration of that compound if 500mg of it are dissolved in 1.0 liter of water? 1. 0.5 millimolar(mM) 2. 5.0 millimolar (mM) 3. 50 millimolar (mM) 4. 500 millimolar (mM) 12. How is cholesterol best described? 1. It is a lipid with very low solubility in water. 2. It is an important component of the plasma membrane of cells. 3. It is a precursor of all the steroid hormones. 4. All the above describe cholesterol. 13. Which class of organic compounds has the greatest variety of structures and functions? 1. Nucleic acids 2. Proteins 3. Lipids 4. Carbohydrates 14. What are the primary functions of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)? 1. It communicates genetic information and determines the rate of cellular division. 2. It codes for the amino acid sequence of proteins and controls what enters and leaves cells. 3. It communicates genetic information and codes for the amino acid sequence of proteins. 4. It controls energy metabolism and the rate of cell division. 15. What is the primary function of muscle cells? 1. They produce force and movement. 2. They communicate information to other cells. 3. They secrete compounds that change the activity of nearby cells. 4. They transport and exchange gases and nutrients. 16. How is the conversion of pluripotent stem cells to differentiated or specialized cells best described? 1. The process occurs late in fetal development. 2. The conversion is normally irreversible. 3. Normally specialized cells are converted back into stem cells. 4. Conversion of stem cells into differentiated cells is unusual. Match the parts of a cell (Questions 17-19) with their description (Answers 1-5). Questions 17. Mitochondria 18. Golgi apparatus 19. Cytoskeleton Answers 1. Site of DNA storage and function 2. Site of protein processing and storage 3. Site of ATP synthesis 4. Maintains cell shape 5. Site of protein synthesis 20. Which of the following is NOT a component of the plasma membrane? 1. Phospholipids 2. Proteins 3. Cholesterol 4. Water 21. How is the cell’s plasma membrane best described? 1. It controls what enters and leaves the cell. 2. It is made primarily of two layers of phospholipids closely associated with each other. 3. It contains cholesterol and proteins. 4. All the above describe the plasma membrane. 22. The concentration of glucose inside a cell (Ci) and its concentration outside a cell (Co) are measured. Supposing the cell’s membrane is permeable to glucose, when will no net change in glucose concentration occur? 1. When Co is greater than Ci. 2. When Co equals Ci. 3. When Co is less than Ci. 4. Not enough information is provided to predict. 23. Why is cell to cell communication by diffusion of limited value in large organisms? 1. Because diffusion cannot occur in large organisms. 2. Because diffusion consumes too much energy. 3. Because only small compounds can move by diffusion. 4. Because diffusion takes too much time. 24. How do simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion differ? 1. Simple diffusion requires a concentration gradient; facilitated diffusion does not. 2. Facilitated diffusion requires energy; simple diffusion does not. 3. Facilitated diffusion uses channels in the plasma membrane; simple diffusion doesn’t use channels. 4. Small compounds cross the plasma membrane by simple diffusion; large compounds use facilitated diffusion. 25. Which of the following compounds will be the fastest to cross the plasma membrane by simple diffusion? 1. A small, non-polar compound 2. A large, non-polar compound 3. A small, polar compound 4. A large, polar compound 26. How is an active transport system best described? 1. An active transport system can produce a concentration gradient for a short time but not for a prolonged period. 2. Active transport systems can move a compound against its concentration gradient or they can produce a separation of charge but not both. 3. By moving a compound against its concentration gradient, active transport systems are exceptions to the rules of thermodynamics. 4. An active transport system uses energy to move a compound against its concentration gradient. 27. The Na+-K+ ATPase pump moves three Na+ ions out of the cell and two K+ ions into the cell for each molecule of ATP used. 1. True 2. False 28. What process involves the movement of water across a membrane in response to the presence of a non-penetrating (impermeant) solute? 1. Active transport 2. Membrane depolarization 3. Solute flux 4. Osmosis 29. What happens to a cell’s volume when it is exposed to a hypertonic solution i.e. a solution with a higher concentration of non-penetrating solutes than the cell contains? 1. It swells. 2. It shrinks. 3. There is no change in cell volume. 4. There is not enough information to predict changes. 30. Which structures make up the central nervous system? 1. The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems 2. The afferent and efferent nervous systems 3. The somatic and autonomic nervous systems 4. The brain and spinal cord 31. In which part of a neuron is the action potential conducted? 1. The nucleus 2. The dendrites 3. The nerve terminal 4. The axon 32. Which neuron will have the fastest conduction velocity? 1. A large diameter, myelinated neuron 2. A small diameter, myelinated neuron 3. A large diameter, unmyelinated neuron 4. A small diameter, unmyelinated neuron Match the components of a synapse (Questions 33-35) with their descriptions (Answers 1-5). Questions 33. Gapjunctions 34. Synaptic vesicles 35. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels Answers 1. They fuse with the plasma membrane and release a neurotransmitter. 2. They are linked to occupation of neurotransmitter receptors. 3. A space of 10-20uM separating pre- and post-synaptic membranes. 4. They open when the pre-synaptic membrane depolarizes. 5. They allow passage of ions directly from one cell to another. 36. What best describes the pre-synaptic (alpha motor) neuron at the neuromuscularjunction? 1. It is myelinated, has voltage—gated Na+ and Ca2+ channels and contains vesicles filled with acetylcholine. 2. When exposed to an inhibitor it hyperpolarizes the post—synaptic membrane by increasing its K+ permeability. 3. Many action potentials are required to release enough neurotransmitter to depolarize the post- synaptic membrane. 4. It has gap junctions by which it depolarizes the muscle cell directly. 37. What do the drug, curare, and the disease, myesthenia gravis, have in common? 1. Both prevent acetylcholine release at the myoneural junction. 2. Both cause persistent stimulation of muscle causing rigor paralysis. 3. Both interfere with the synthesis of acetylcholine. 4. Both prevent the binding of acetylcholine to its receptor on the muscle cell. 38. How is the motor end plate of a skeletal muscle cell best described? 1. It contains acetylcholine receptors linked to ion channels. 2. It is associated with acetylcholinesterase. 3. It is the site of the initial depolarization of the muscle cell. 4. All the above describe the motor end plate. 39. How does synaptic transmission in the central nervous system differ from synaptic transmission at the myoneural junction? 1. Synaptic transmission in the central nervous system may be excitatory or inhibitory but at the myoneural junction it always stimulates. 2. A central nervous system neuron has input from many other neurons but a skeletal muscle cell is innervated by a single nerve cell. 3. Acetylcholine is the only neurotransmitter at the myoneural junction but there are many different neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. 4. All the above distinguish synaptic transmission in the central nervous system and at the myoneural junction. 40. The production of a single end plate potential at the myoneural junction is usually adequate to depolarize a skeletal muscle cell. 1. True 2. False 41. According to Ohm’s Law, how will an electrical current change when both voltage and resistance are doubled? 1. It will double. 2. It will be reduced by half. 3. It will increase by voltage squared. 4. It will not change. 42. What is the equilibrium potential of an ion? 1. It is the voltage at which an ion crosses the plasma membrane against its concentration gradient. 2. It is the voltage that stops the net movement of an ion down its concentration gradient across a membrane. 3. It is the voltage at which the concentrations of an ion on either side of a membrane are equal. 4. It is the voltage that changes the permeability of the plasma membrane to that ion. 43. According to the Nernst equation, what is the equilibrium potential for Ca2+ if its concentration outside a cell is 1,000mM and inside a cell is 1.0mM? 1. About -70mv 2. About 90mv 3. About 180mv 4. About SOOmv 44. What is the most important factor producing a resting membrane potential of -70mv in a typical cell? 1. Movement of K+ out of the cell 2. Movement of K+ into the cell 3. Movement of Na+ out of the cell 4. Movement of Na+ into the cell 45. The figure below depicts the membrane potential (Em) of a neuron over time. The dashed line is the threshold potential of the neuron. At the time indicated by the arrow the cell was exposed to a neurotransmitter. What effect did the neurotransmitter most likely have on the neuron? 1. It closed K+ channels. 2. It opened K+ channels. 3. It closed Na+ channels. 4. It opened Na+ channels. 46. What is the threshold potential of a cell? 1. It is the membrane potential at which the diffusion of K+ out of the cell is increased. 2. It is the membrane potential at which no change in membrane permeability takes place. 3. It is the membrane potential at which the K+ and Na+ permeabilities are equal. 4. It is the membrane potential at which the membrane becomes permeable primarily to Na+. 47. Depicted below are the changes in membrane potential (Em) during an action potential in a neuron. 30 gm 0 ——a=- (M) —70 a Z 3 4 5' HME(msac,) What accounts for the change in voltage indicated by the arrow? 1. The Na+-K+ ATPase stops briefly so resting membrane potential cannot be maintained. 2. The plasma membrane becomes permeable mostly to Na+. 3. The plasma membrane becomes permeable mostly to K+. 4. Plasma membrane permeabilities to Na+ and K+ are about equal. 48. Graded potentials vary in magnitude with the strength of the stimulus and are conducted along the length of the plasma membrane without decay. 1. True 2. False 49. When stimuli are applied to a neuron in quick succession, depolarizing responses can build on each other until threshold is reached and an action potential is generated. What term describes this process? 1. Hyperpolarization 2. Synaptic transmission 3. Temporal summation 4. Spatial summation 50. To get this answer right fill in circle 1. ...
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Exam 1 & Key - Fall 2009 MPP 3202 - lWRPfiZOZ [5:1...

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