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Exam 1 & Key- Fall 2002 MPP3202

Exam 1 & Key- Fall 2002 MPP3202 - FEB-la-EEEE 14:56...

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Unformatted text preview: FEB-la-EEEE 14:56 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIERHRY 5738841421 P;81711 Student name: ____,—._—-—n—H—'— Student number: _‘H_,—..—.—‘—-—v—‘—- TA name: Thurs/Fri ELEMENTS OF PHYSIOLOGY 0 fun.“ lst Examination MAW September 25, 2002 AME 5" in the top of the question sheet and answer sheet. Include your TA's name and lab day on the question sheet. We only need your name and TA's name on the top to the answer sheet. You don‘t need to fill in any circles on the front page. J Circle the letter that best completes the statement on the question sheet and fill in the appropriate answer circle on the answer sheet. (A=1. 3:2, C=3, n=4, 3:5) Each answer is worth 2 points. Turn in both the question and answer sheet. Staple the answer sheet to the back of the question sheet with the answer circles facing out. m, II' 1. which of the following describes the study of physiology? A. It is the study of biological function; how the parts of the body work. B. It is an attempt to describe biological functions in terms of chemistry and physics. C. It is the study of how different levels of biological organization- cells, tissues, organs and organ systems—are integrated and regulated. All the above describe physiology. 2. Measurement of a particular hormone during the menstrual cycle BhDWS that its concentration in the blood rises steadily in the first hplf of the cycle then falls quickly to near zero. Which of the following is most likely regulating the hormone's concentration in the blood? Q a positive feedback system B. a negative feedback system C. either of the above . D. neither of the above Page 1 ——"7 l—Izti—lU—dldlflj l4: D'I’ HI:HI_ | H ‘.:I'._.1|:N'._.I: LIHHHHT D'I’Jtiti-fil-lfil-dl |—'. E]:/ 11 3. What is homeostasis? (5:) It is the abiity of living things to maintain a constant internal environment. B. It is the ability of living things to live for an extended time without changing. C. It refers to the chemical structures that all living things share in in,” common. .1: “to - _H ,, D. It refers to the ability of genes to replicate so lhhfladggfiacaeed‘ cells have the same genetic make- -up. :5. ‘3 ‘1“ r .1! li‘ 4. which of the following best describes a hydrogen bond? A. It is the strongest of the chemical bonds. It is formed when a polar area of one molecule bonds to an area of opposite polarity on another molecule. C. It is the principal bond that joins the amino acids of proteins, the carbohydrates of starches and the lipids of fats. D. It is formed when one atom donates an election to another forming atoms of opposite charge. I. 5. which of the following is an example of an amphipathic compound? A. a water molecule B. a cholesterol molecule Q a phospholipid molecule . a carbohydrate molecule For Questions 6-8 match the term with its description. 6- Rough (granular) endoplasmic reticulum A. site of ATP synthesis B. maintains cellular architecture C. site of gene regulation 9 site of protein synthesis 7 . Mitochondri on Q site of ATP synthesis B maintains cellular architecture C. site of gene regulation D. site of protein synthesis 8. Cytoskeleton A. site of ATP synthesis <3} maintains cellular architecture C. site of gene regulation D. site of protein synthesis I Page 2 l—Izti—lU—dldlflj l4: D'I’ HI:HI_ | H ‘.:I'._.1|:N'._.I: LIHHHHT D'I’Jtiti-fil-lfil-dl |—'. 63/ ll 9. An atlas of cell structure contains the following description: "It is made up of a phospholipid bilayer with non-polar areas in contact with each other and polar groups lining the inner and outer surfaces. Proteins are embedded in the bilayer and some of them cross the bilayer." What structure is being described? A. a ribosome B. the nucleus 9 the plasma membrane D. the cytoplasm 10. During embryonic development pluripotent stem cells differentiate into many specialized cell types. Which of the following statements about that process is true? A. Some cell types originate when a few differentiated cell types develop into other, different specialized cells. ‘E’ Under ordinary conditons differentiation is irreversible. C E] q ‘ufl Differentiated cells can revert to pluripotent stem cells. None of the above are true. II 11. Which statement characterizes the process of facilitated diffusion? A. It occurs against a concentration gradient and allows lipids to enter the cell. (E) It is a saturable process by which charged or polar molecules enter the cell. C. It allows charged or polar molecules to enter or leave the cell against a concentration gradient. D. It is not found in healthy cells but is a sign of abnormal gene expression. 12. Cholesterol enters liver cells by simple diffusion. Which condition will prevent cholesterol's net entry into liver cells? (5) Equal concentrations of cholesterol inside and outside the liver cells B. Saturation of the cholesterol carrier in the liver cell‘s plasma membrane C. Depletion of the liver cell's ATP stores D. None of the above will stop cholesterol entry 13. Which statement best describes active transport? A. It is the opening of channels in a membrane which allows a material to diffuse into cells down its concentration gradient. B- It uses energy (ATP) to move a material down it concentration gradient faster than simple diffusion would allow. C. It is an unusual process that is rarely observed in most cell types. (E) It uses energy (ATP) to move a material against its concentration gradient. Page 3 l—Izti—lU—dldlflj l4: D'I’ HI:HI_ | H bthNLI: LIHHHHT D'I’Jtiti-fil-lfil-dl |—'. (114/ 11 __.--..s/' 14. Which statement regarding the Na+-K+ ATPase pump is true? A. It moves both Na+ and K+ down their cocentration gradients as ATP is used. B. It moves equal numbers of Na+ and K+ ions into and out of the cell with each ATP used. C. It is found in only a few cells types in which K+ is present in high concentration. 5;! (E) It is electrogenic in that, for each ATP used. 3 Na+ move out of the cell while 2 K+ move in. 15. Why is the Ca2+ concentration inside cells so much lower than its concentration outside cells? A. Because Ca2+ cannot cross the plasma membrane. Because the Ca2+ ATPase pump moves Ca2+ out of the cell's cytoplasm. "if? C. Because Ca2+ inside cells is quickly metabolized. D- Because there are no Ca3+ channels for Ca3+ t0 enter the C911~ 16. Which of the following statements about osmosis is true? (E) It is the movement of water across a membrane from an area of low nonspenetrating solute concentration to an area of high non— penetrating solute concentration. ‘”' B. It is the movement of water across a membrane from an area of high non—penetrating solute concentration to an area of low non- penstrating solute concentration. C. During osmosis both water and soute molecules cross a membrane until the solute concentrations across the membrane are equal. D. During osmosis the osmotic pressure falls until it stops further movement of solutes across a membrane. Cells contain non—penetrating (impermeable) solutes that give their contents an osmotic strength of 300 mOsm/L, equivalent to 150 meNaCl. Are the following statements true or false? (Fill in circle #1 for true: #2 for false.) 17. (:7 F Cells exposed to 150 mM Nacl will not changes volume. 18. (;) F Cells exposed to 75 mM NaCl will gain water and swell. 19. (E, F Cells exposed to 250 mM NaCl will lose water and shrink. 20. According to Ohm'e Law how will current (I) change if both voltage (V) and resistance (R) are doubled? A. It will double. B. It will he reduced by half. C. It will he reduced by resistance squared (R2). (E) It will not change. Page 4 FEB—la—EBBS 14:58 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 P.85/11 21. According to the Nernst equation, what is the equilibrium potential for ion X" if its concentration outside cells is 100 mM and inside cells is 10 mM? A. 0 mV B. +59 mV @ —59 mm; D. -llB mV 22. A typical cell has a resting plasma membrane potential of —7G mv. What would most likely be the membrane's potential if the cell became more permeable to K+? A. ~65 mv B. -70 my Q —75 mv D. not enough information to determine 23. Which of the following is true of action potentials? , a. .J A. They are conducted along the plasma membrane without decay. B. They all depolarize the plasma membrane to the same extent. C. They may result from increased membrane permeability to either Na+ or K+. @ A and B are true but C is not. 24. Which of the following is true of graded potentials? A. They vary with strength of stimulus. B._ They decay with distance along the plasma membrane. C. They may depolarize or hyperpolarize the membrane. GE? All the above describe graded potentials. 25. when a cell's membrane potential reaches its threshold potential which of the following takes place? “ A. The Na+—K+ ATPase pump is reversed so the cell's interior becomes more positive. B. The membrane potential will return to resting potential. The membrane will become more permeable to Na+ than to K+. D. A and B are true but C is not. 26. which of the following is true regarding voltage-gated Na+ channels? A. They are closed at resting membrane potential but open when threshold potential is reached- B. They allow Na+ to enter cells because their activation gate opens before their inactivation gate closes. C. The opening and closing of activation and inactivation gates is the basis of the absolute refractory period. ‘:’ All the above describe voltage—gated Na+ channels. Page 5 FEB-la-EEEE 14:58 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 P.86/11 27. What is the basis of the relative refractory period of a cell? (9; Active voltage-gated K+ channels make the plasma membrane more permeable to K+ than at rest so the membrane's potential is farther from threshold than is the resting membrane potential. B. The Na+-K+ ATPase pump requires time to reestablish the Na+ and K+ gradients of a resting cell and until it does an action potential cannot be initiated. C. Voltage—gated Na+ and K+ channels close simultaneously so that membrane potential is near zero for 2—3 msec. .= " “” D. All the above account for the relative refractory period. 28. How is it that a frog's gastrocnemius muscle is capable of increasing responses to increasing stimuli even though each fiber of the muscle is responding in all—or—none fashion? 1;: A. Individual muscle fibers increase their response when neighboring fibers contract. Different muscle fibers have different thresholds so increasing stimuli cause more fibers to respond. C. Stronger stimuli release more Ca2+ in the cell so more force is exerted during contraction. D. Stronger stimuli cause more Na+ to enter the cell so greates depolarization causes stronger contractions. ‘ ng 29. Scientists at a pharmaceutical company want toJEEQelop a drug that will readily cross biological membranes and enter cells quickly. What properties of the drug would be most likely to §9p1?Y9 these goals? A. The drug should be small and charged or polar. B. The drug should be large and non—polar. “fit C. The drug should be large and charged or polar. (E) The drug should be small and non—polar. Page 6 FEB—la—EBBS 14: 58 HEFILTH SCIENCE L I BRFIRY 5738841421 P . [217/ 1 1 The graph below depicts force and duration of a single twitch of a frog gastrocnemius muscle. The system was calibrated at 12 gm of force per centemter of pen movement; the chart speed was 100 mm/sec‘ "DISTA'NCB 51" o F PEN *0 ‘ movemsu'r 3“ c:‘;4“l) ;ZD¢’ 1.: 2.5" .510 25’ mo 12.5 DlSTANCE a: tuna-r moVEME-‘NT (mm) 30. What was the maximum force developed? ' A. about 30 gm 3. about 40 gm @ about 55 gm D. about 65 gm 31. How long was the relaxation phase of the twitch? about 5 msec A. . about 10 mass about 50 msec D about 10D msec Page 7 FEB-la-EEEE 14:59 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 The graph below shows the measurement of elasticity of a frog's gastrocnemius muscle. 32. 33. 34. 12.345” A¢¢HMUMTED LENfi-TH (m m ) ks?“ Ian- What is the muscle'e elasticity? A. 5 gm/mm (a, 10 gm/mm C. 25 gm/mm D. 50 gm/mm skeletal muscle fibers are excitable cells, their resting membrane potential arises A. the movement 9 the movement C. the movement D. the movement primarily from of K+ down its electrical gradient. of K+ down its concentration gradient. of Cl' down its concentration gradient. of Na+ down its concentraticn gradient. P.88/11 At resting membrane potential the electrical gradient for K+ will tend to move K+m A. out of the cell. @ into the cell. C. neither out or into the cell. Page-8 FEB-la-EEEE 14:59 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 P.89/11 35. At resting membrane potential the electrical gradient for C1" will tend a" to move Cl" %* Q out of the cell. B. into the cell. C. neither out or into the cell. 36. Thick filaments in skeletal muscle are composed of A. actin. @ myosin. . troponin. D. calmodulin. E. tropomyosin. 37. During isotonic contraction of a skeletal muscle fiber the A. sarcomeres shorten B. A bands shorten C. I bands shorten myofilaments shorten (E: A and C 38. Binding of 1 to myosin permits cross-bridge 2 between actin and myosin. 1 ATP; 2 attachment @ 1 ATP.- 2 detachment 1 calcium; Rattachment 1 calcium, 2 detachment l actin; 2 detachment ;”“ “w: 39. The removal of calcium ions from the cytosol of skeletal muscle causes A. the myosin—binding sites on aotin to be uncovered by tropomyosin. B tropomyosin to change conformation and thereby move calmodulin . molecules over cross—bridge binding sites. troponin to change conformation and thereby expose cross—bridge C binding sites. ED the myosin- binding sites on aotin to be covered by tropomyosin. E. none of the above. 40. The transverse tubules in a skeletal muscle fiber A. store calcium ions. B. form the 3 lines. ta) provide a means of transmitting an action potential in the muscle plasma membrane to central portions of the fiber. D E store ATP. run in parallel with the myofibrils. Ina-I- Page 9 FEB-la-EEEE 14:59 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 P.1E/11 41. "Motor unit“ refers to a single motor neuron plus all the muscle fibers it innervates. B. a single muscle fiber plus all of the motor neurons that innervate it. " C. all of the motor neurons supplying a single muscle. D. a pair of antagonistic muscles. E. all of the muscles that affect the movement of any given joint. 42. Which of the following events does not occur during the latent period of a skeletal muscle twitch? it“ A. Action potential propagation along the sarcolemma and t—tuhules B. opening of Ca2+ release channels <:> Net Ca2+ movement into the sarcoplasmic reticulum through Ca2+ channels D. Ca2+ binding to troponin allowing tropomyosin movements E. myosin interacting with actin 43. Which of the following statements regarding skeletal muscle contraction is true? alu- 1". A. The tension developed during the contraction of a muscle fibEr is dependent upon the initial length of the fiber.. B. There is a positive correlation between muscle fiber length and the tension that can be developed by the fiber: the longer the fiber, the greater the tension. .9 C. There is a positive correlation between the frequency of acé;on potentials in a single muscle fiber and the tension it can develop: the greater the frequency, the greater the tension, up to a plateau. (ES) A and C. 44. Which of the following is not a determinant of whole-muscle tension? The number of muscle fibers contracting. The tension produced by each contracting fiber. The extent of motor unit recruitment. The frequency of motor neuron stimulation. The proportion of the muscle fibers in each motor unit thatrare contracting at any given time. “ D n m b 45. According to the force—velocity relationship of skeletal muscle, A. slow—twitch muscle moves the same relative load slower than fast- twitch muscle. B. the rate of cross-bridge cycling speeds up when the relativewload is reduced. H" C. If the. .1oad on the muscle exceeds the force produced by the muscle the contraction is termed isometric. D. velocity of shortening is inversely related to the load on the. muscle. _ ® all of the above Page 10 FEB—1B—EBBS 15: as HEFILTH SCIENCE L I BRFIRY 5738841421 P . 1 1/ 1 1 46. (EPmajor differenoe between smooth muscle and skeletal muscle is that A. myosin is the regulatory protein in Smooth muscle. B. myoein is the regulatory protein in skeletal muscle. C. skeletal muscle may exhibit spontaneous activity. D. only skeletal muscle requires increased calcium ion concentration in the cytosol for contraction. none of the above. El For the next 4 questions match the muscle property with the appropriate musole type. Choose (A) for skeletal muscle (B) for smooth muscle or (C) if the muscle property pertains to both skeletal and smooth muscle. (one point each) ' 47.. B Dense bodies 48. fig Troponin 49. lab Thick filament regulation of contraction 50. IE! Influx of extracellular calcium into the cell during excitation Page ll TDTHL P.11 ...
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