Exam 1- Winter 2003 MPP3202

Exam 1- Winter 2003 MPP3202 - see—is—soos 17:1 Student...

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Unformatted text preview: see—is—soos 17:1 Student Student TA Name Fill in TA's name and lab day on the question sheet. and TA's name on the top of the answer sheet. E H EHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY ‘ rim I " 5?38841421 P al/ll fibril”; .--’/;i’) :57 V‘s-L/ *1/54: xii-:fir‘fi- a' B ns-» fifth F;J:P Name: ‘ f a, s.. ,s» _,—r Fflfihmf%"/9¢rw._ “ Ffl" Number: M __ , C, pp, .1 ,fiylfiung-a "vi- ~ ' r———e-————a .LLJ ‘rflfifw ” ELEMENTS OF PHYSIOLOGY 14th—Examination February 19, 309&—“ ‘1095 the top of the question sheet and answer sheet. Include your We only need your name You don't need to fill in any circles on the front page. Circel the letter of the estion sheet and fill in the appropriate answer Circle qu sheet. Each an Turn in the bee answer that best completes the statment on the on the answer (Azl, 352, 0:3, D=4, E=5). swer is worth 2 points unless otherwise indicated. both the question and answer sheet. Staple the answer sheet to k of the question sheet with the answer circles showing. SEP—lS—EBBS 17:16 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 P.82/11 1. Which branch of science is concerned with the study of biological function-how the parts of the body work? A. physiology B. anatomy C. biochemistry D. pharmacology 2. Measurements of the plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin show that both are very stable with little change in plasma concentrations of either over several hours. Which of the following statements most likely describes the relationship between plasma glucose and insulin? They are regulated by a positive feedback control system. They are regulated by a negative feedback control system. Either A or B could be true. . Neither A or B is true. U n w W 3. What term best describes the stable conditions outlined in question #2? A. synergistic B. soporific C. hyperbolic D. homeostatic 4. Which of the following best describes a covalent bond? A. It is the weakest of the chemical bonds. B. It is the strongest of the chemical bonds. C. It is formed when one atom donates an electron to another atom. D. It is formed when polar areas interact with areas of opposite polarity on other molecules. 5. What is true of a compound described as "hydroplilic". A. It is polar or charged. E. It could be a small ion or a large protein. C. It dissolves readily in water. D. All the above are true of hydrophilic compounds. 6. Which class of organic compounds has the greatest variety of functions and forms? A. carbohydrates B. lipids C. proteins D. nucleic acids 7. What is the primary structure of a protein? A. It is the shape it assumes in three dimensional space. E. It is the sequence of bases in mRNA that code the protein‘s structure . C. It is the amino acid sequence of the protein. D. It is the sequence of bases in DNA that determines the protein's structure. Page 1 SEF—lB—EBBS 10. ll. 12. 17:16 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 P.83/ll A textbook has the following description: "Sugar molecules are connected to each other by phosphate (POq3‘) groups forming two helical backbones within which adenine and thymine or guanine and cytosine are joined by hydrogen bonds." What is being described? A. messenger RNA {mRNA} B. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) C. a protein D. the plasma membrane Which of the following represents the most advanced level of cellular organization? A. the E- single motor units C. striated muscle cells D. pluripotent stem cells muscloskeletal system Which of the following determines the flux of a compound into or out of cells by diffusion? A. the concentration difference of the comound across the cell membrane B. the size and polarity of the compound C. the temperature D. all the above What best describes the ribosomes of a cell? A. They are the site of ATP synthesis (energy production). B. They are the site of protein synthesis. C. They regulate the process of DNA replication. D. They maintain cellular architecture along with actin and tubulin. does facilitated diffusion differ from simple diffusion? A. Simple diffusion requires a concentration gradient but facilitated diffusion can occur without a concentration gradient. B. Facilitated diffusion occurs via specific carriers in the membrane; simple diffusion does not require such carriers. C. Simple diffusion does not require energy expenditure but facilitated diffusion does. D. By simple diffusion compounds enter cells: facilitated diffusion is needed for compounds to leave cells. Page 2 SEP-lB-EBEE 17:17 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIERHRY 5738841421 PLBfl/ll 13. Figure 1 below shows the concentrations of NaCl in two solutions separated by a membrane at Time=D. Figure 2 shows the concentrations ten minutes later. Which statement regarding the membrane separating the solutions is true? 5 ‘5‘!!! MW Fm Z. 4; -.-. (0 mil- . It is impermeable to NaCl. The concentration changes are due to diffusion. It contains an active transport pump for Neel. No membrane could produce such a change. '3an 14. The figure below depicts NaCl concentrations on two sides of a membrane which is permeable to water but impermeable to NaCl. Which statement about this system is correct? :7 50mm (SUM he ,mcr A. Water will move from the left solution to the right solution. B. Water will move from the right solution to the left solution. C. No water movement will occur. D. Not enough information is given to predict water movement. 15. According to Ohm's law what happens to electrical current if voltage doubles and resistance is unchanged? A. nothing B. It doubles. C. It is reduced by half. D. It is increased by (voltsge)2. 16. According to the Nernst equation, what is the equilibrium potential for ion x- if its concentration is the same inside and outside the cell? A. -59 mv B. +59 mv C. 0 mv D— None of the above Page 3 SEP—lS—EBBS 17: 1'? HEFILTH SCIENCE LIBRFIRY 5738841421 F‘ [35/ 11 17. Which statement regarding the Na+-K+ ATPaSE is tIUE? A. It is electrogenic (creates a separation of charge). B. It moves 3 Na+ ions out of the cell for each ATP used. C. It moves 2 K+ ions doWn their concentration gradient for each ATP used. D. A and B are true of the Na+--K+ ATPase but C is not. 13. To what ion is a cell most permeable at rest? A. Na+ s Ca2+ C. K+ D Poq3r 19. A certain drug causes an increase in the permeability of cells to K+. Which of the following would result from exposure to that drug? A. Resting cells would be hyperpolarized. B. Stronger stimuli would be needed to cause an action potential. C The hyperpolarization phase of the action potential would be prolonged. D. All the above would follow drug exposure. 20. How do graded potentials differ from action potentials? A. Graded potentials vary with the strength of stimulus. E. Graded depolarizations are not due to Na+ ions entering the cell as are action potential depolarizations. Graded potentials depend on changes in Cl— permeability. All of the above distinguish graded potentials from action potentials. CID 21. Which of the following is due to activation of voltagergated K+ channels in the plasma membrane? The resting membrane potential The voltage reached at the peak of the actiion potential. The voltage change caused by graded potentials. The hyperpolarization phase of an action potential. DUDE-33‘ 22. What is defined as "the transmembrane voltage at which the membrane becomes more permeable to Na+ and less permeable to K+". A. resting membrane potential B. threshold potential C. peak of the action potential D. repolarization phase of the action potential. Page 4 SEP—1‘3—EBBS 17: 1'? HEFILTH SCIENCE L I BRFIRY 5738841421 P . [36/ 1 1 23. What is the basis of the absolute refractory period? A. Opening and closing of the activation and inactivation gates of the Na+ channels B. Activation of voltage-gated K+ ChannElS C. Simultaneous opening of voltage—gated Na+ and K+ channels D. All of the above contribute to the absolute refractory period. 24. What is the basis of the relative refractory period when the cell can respond only to a stronger-than—normal stimulus? A. Voltage-gated K+ channels are briefly open and this lowers membrane voltage below the usual resting potential and farther from threshold. B. Concentration gradients for Na+ and K+ are dissipated during the action potential and must be reestablished before another response can occur. c_ K+ channels in the plasma membrane are briefly closed after an action potential and a stronger stimulus is needed to open them. D- After an action potential the threshold potential is briefly elevated so a stronger stimulus is needed to reach it. 25. The figure below depicts the force—length relationship of a muscle and of a rubber band. Which has the greater elasticity? A. rubber band B. muscle b Fonts to (7”) lo Quasi!!- 26. How are elasticity and extensibility related? A. As one increases the other also increases. B. If one increases the other stays constant. C. As one increases the other decreases. D. They vary independently so a change in one need not cause a change in the other. Page 5 SEP—lB—EBBS 17:18 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 P.87/11 The figure below depicts the force generated by a muscle preparation in response to stimuli of increasing strength. Questions 27 and 28 refer to this figure- “15' Fflfltfi' 5'0 27. 28. (9”) 2.5" 0-5" (-0 f5" 1.0 2.5 3.0 3.; 51*: muLus- eraeusm (Va W3) Why is the response to the 2.0 volt stimulus greater than that to the 1.5 volt stimulus? A. Stronger stimuli release more Ca2+ into the cell so more cross bridges can form. E. Stronger stimuli cause a greater amplitude of the action potential and greater depolarization generates more force. C. More fibers respond to the stronger stimulus because the previous stimulus partially depolarized some fibers which depolarize when stimulated again. " D. More fibers respond to the stronger stimulus because fibers with thresholds between 1.5 and 2.0 volts are responding in addition to those that responded to 1.5 volts. Which stimuli evoke maximal responses? A. 1.0 and 1.5 volts , B. 1.5 and 2.5 volts C. 2.0 and 3.0 volts D. 2.5 and 3.0 volts ' ‘ Page 6 8E8—18—2883 17:18 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 P 88/11 The figure below depicts the force and duration of a single muscle twitch. The system was calibrated at 15 gm of foroe per centimeter of vertical pen movement; the chart speed was 100 mm/eec. 51o 'DtsTMcE 54., 0F T’EN 3‘0 m w emwr’ (cm) 1gp [-0 14-5“ 5.0 7.: me me" 15.0 DISTA-uce oF came-r mavemfl’T—(mm) 29. What was the maximum force developed? A. about 30 gm B. about 45 gm C. about 60 gm D. about 75 gm 30. How long was the contraction phase of the twitch? A. about 15 msec E. about 25 mseo C. about 50 msec D. about 75 msec 31. At resting membrane potential the electrical gradient for C1‘ will tend to move Cl‘. A. out of the cell. B. into the cell. C. Neither out or into the cell. 32. At the peak of the action potential the concentration gradient for K+ will tend to move K+. A. out of the cell. B. into the cell. C. neither out or into the cell. 33. The protein myosin comprises the thin filament in a muscle fiber. A B. has a tail that forms the cross—bridges. C. has a globular head with a binding site for actin and ATP. D is only found in fast—glycolytic fibers. Page 7 SEP—lS—EBBS 17: 18 HEFILTH SCIENCE LIBRFIRY 5738841421 F‘ [219/ 11 34. During isotonic contraction of a skeletal—muscle fiber the A. the distance between Z lines increases. B. A bands curl up. C. I bands shorten. D. thin filaments lengthen. 35. During the crossebridge cycle: A. ATP is hydrolyzed by actin. B. myosin heads interact with tropomyosin to generate force. C. Rigor cross—bridges (A M) is the predominant state. D. the power stroke is associated with the release of products from ATP hydrolysis (i.e., phosphate and ADP) from myosin. E. none of the above 36. During excitation—contraction coupling in skeletal muscle: A. action potentials travel within the thick filaments. B. calcium channels in the thin filaments close in response to action potentials propagating down the transverse tubules. C. calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum binds to tropomyosin. D. energized myosin heads interact with troponin on the thin filament causing muscle relaxation. E. none of the above 37. In skeletal muscle, tension during a single isometric twitch declines because: A. ATP levels decline greatly B. Ca2+ is actively transported into the sarcoplasmic reticulum C. the refractory period for the action potential is complete D. build up of lactic acid leads to fatigue. E. the sarcomeres shorten beyond the point of optimal overlap 38. All but which of the following events occur during the latent period of a twitch? A. Action potential propagation along the sarcolemma and t-tubules. B. opening of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channels. C. Net Ca2+ movement into the sarcoplasmic reticulum through Ca3+ channels. D. Ca2+ binding to tropcnin allowing tropomyosin movements E. myosin interacts with actin. 39. Which is not a function of ATP in a muscle fiber? A. Energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP maintains K+ and Na+ concentration gradients across the sarcolemma. B. ATP binding to myosin causes myosin to dissociate from actin. C. ATP hydrolysis energizes crossabridges. D. ATP interacts with Ca2+ to move tropomyosin, allowing myosin to interact with actin. Page 8 th—lfl—dflflfi 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. lYilfl HtHLIH bthNLt LIHHHHT DYJUU4l4dl H.1e/11 The molecular basis for the reduction of muscle tension over the descending limb of the length—tension relationship is: A. Thick filaments colliding with the Z lines. 3. Thin filaments from the opposite side of the sarcomere interfering with cross-bridge interactions with actin. C. Reductions in the amount of overlap between thick and D. Reductions is stimulus intensity to the muscle. E. none of the above thin filaments Which of the following is not a determinant of muscle shortening velocity during a tetanic contraction? A. number of activated motor units B. load on the muscle C. number of fast twitch fibers activated D. level of muscle fatigue E. all the above factors would affect muscle shortening velocity. While lifting weights you try to do a set of 8 repetitions with 185 pounds. However, you only are able to perform 6 and half repetitions. Which of the following provide a molecular mechanism for not be able to finish the set? A. ATP depletion in skeletal muscle fibers. E. reduced Ca2+ release from the SR due to build—up of H+ ions. C. reduced force per myosin cross-bridge due to H+ ions interfering with the actin—myosin interaction. D. depletion of glycogen. E. Both b and c are correct. For the next 8 questions match the muscle property with the appropriate muscle type. Choose (A) for skeletal muscle (B) for smooth muscle or (C) if the muscle property pertains to both skeletal and smooth muscle. Dense bodies _..—-— -Myofibrils Troponin Thick filament regulation of contraction _—_—u_.._ Influx of extracellular calcium into the cell during excitaiton _.._—-—- __Activated by calcium .—- Latch state _Force generated by myosin cross-bridges cyclically interacting with actin. Page 9 5 _. _ . :. _ _ EF‘ 1‘3 2883 1'? 1‘3 HEHLTH SLIENCE LIBRFIRY 5738841421 F“ ii i]. I. ./. . Answer Key for Test "w033x3m1.t3t", 2/17/2003 No. in No. on 3-333. _T33¢_ PQEC’EflSPfl- 1 21 1 A 1 22 2 3 1 23 3 n 1 24 4 13 1 25 __3___,11_— 1 23 6 c 1 27 7 c 1 28 B B 1 23 3 A 1 30 13111—1 1 31 '11 3 1 32 12 3 1 33 13 c 1 34 14 A 1 35 32—3.“-.- 1 33 13 c 1 37 17 D 1 33 13 c 1 33 13 D 1 43 2_g_ A 1 41 21 “15'— 1 42 22 3 1 43 23 A 1 44 24 A 1 45 25 B 1 43 23 c 1 47 27 D 1 43 23 D f. 1 43 23 c/ / 1 30 33 3:! _“ 11 33 31 A? 11 33 32 Av’ 11 37 33 c/ 11 36 34 0/ 11 33 -35 11 33 33 E "~—-‘ 11 130 37 13/ ll 94 38 C“ 11101 33 D\/ 11132 43 0/ 11 103 11104 42 21/ 11103 43 2M 11 106 44 133/ 11 107 _43 AV/ 11 103 Him”? 11 103 47 31/ 11 110 43 cv’ 11 111 43 13v” 11 112 33 c/ Page 1 TDTRL P.11 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2012 for the course MPP 3202 taught by Professor Hurley during the Spring '08 term at Missouri (Mizzou).

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Exam 1- Winter 2003 MPP3202 - see—is—soos 17:1 Student...

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