Exam 2 & Key - Fall 2002 MPP3202

Exam 2 & Key - Fall 2002 MPP3202 -...

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Unformatted text preview: IVIHH—UJ—dlfllflj 1:): d1 HI:HI_ | H bthNLI: LIHHHHT D'I’Jtiti-fil-lfil-dl |—'. Idl/ 1E] Student Name: _,,__—_,.—...._—_-n—u_ Student Number: TA Name: Thurs/Fri ELEMENTS OF PHYSIOLOGY OCTOBER 15. 2002 2ND EXAMINATION Fill in the top of the question sheet and answer sheet. Include your TA's name and lab day on the question sheet. We only need your name and TA's name on the top to the answer sheet. You don't meet to fill in any circles on the front page. Circle the letter of the answer that best completes the statement on the question sheet and fill in the appropriate answer circle on the answer sheet. (A=l, 3:2, C=3. D=4, 5:5) Each answer is worth 2 points unless otherwise indicated. Turn in both the question and answer sheet. Staple the answer sheet to the hack of the question sheet with the answer circles facing the back. 1. which of the following characteristics of a skeletal muscle twitch are in the correct order of their duration from shortest to longest? A. latent period, refractory period. contractile phase, end of summation B. refractory period, latent period, and of summation, contractile phase. C. refractory period, latent period, contractile phase, and of summation. D. latent period, and of summation, refracotry period, contractile phase. 2. Why are spinal reflexes elicited on the ipsilateral side of the spine (i.e. the same side as the stimulus) always faster than those on the contralateral side of the spine? A. Because interneurons crossing the spinal cord are unmyelinated and have slow conduction times. 3. Because contralateral responses require more synapses so there is more diffusion time. C. Because muscles that respond to the stimulus are closer on the ipsilateral side so conduction time is less. D. Because the ccntralateral reflex is by an extensor muscle which is slower than a flexor response. Page i IVIHH—UJ—dlfllflj 1:): d1 HI:HI_ | H ‘.:I'._.1|:N'._.I: LIHHHHT D'I’Jtiti-fil-lfil-dl |—'. E]:/ llc'] A frog deprived of a brain is still capable of purposeful responses to noxious stimuli. What conclusion is justified by this observation? A. An awareness of pain is not necessary to elicit reactions that avoid painful stimuli. B. Purposeful actions can take place even though no purpose is consciously formed. C. Complex motor activities can be coordinated and executed without a brain. D. All the above conclusions are justified. Why is the force produced when tetanus is induced in a skeletal muscle greater than the force produced in response to a single maximal stimulus? A. Because the frequency of stimulation is so great. B. Because the frequency of stimulation causes greater accumulation of Ca2+ in the muscle cell which induces maximal contractile force. C. Because the frequent depolarizations of the plasma membrane allow Na+ to accumulate in muscle cells. D. Because frequent stimulations increase the activity of myosin light chain kinase to a greater extent than does a single stimulus. A certain drug increases the absolute refractory period of skeletal muscle so that the muscle cannot respond to a second stimulus until the relaxation phase is almost complete. What effect would such a drug have on muscle function? A. A state of tetanus could not be induced. B. The latent period would be greatly prolonged. C. Recruitment of more muscle fibers using stronger stimuli could not occur . D. None of the above Which statement best describes the following structures: pia mater, spongy arachnoid material and dura mater? A. They are tissues covering the brain and spinal cord. B. They are the structures that mediate spinal reflexes. C. They constitute the gray matter of the spinal cord. D. B and C are true but A is not. which statement best describes the inhibitory stretch (or force) reflex which is initiated by signals from the Golgi tendon organ? A. It results in inhibition of both the flexors and extensors involved. B. It results in stimulation of both the flexors and extensors involved. It inhibits the muscle of the tendon where the signals originate. It inhibits the flexor muscle on the contralatsral side. Ur} Page 2 IVIHH—UJ—dlfllflj 1:): d1 HI:HI_ | H bthNLI: LIHHHHT D'I’Jtiti-fil-lfil-dl |—'. 63/ 1E] 10. ll. 12. 13. 14. 15. 15. Which element of the tendon stretch [knee jerk) reflex requires the most time? A. activation of the muscle spindle fibers when the tendon is stretched conduction time of afferent and efferent nerve fibers synaptic transmission time excitation—contraction coupling in the extensor muscle U003 Are the following statements true or false? (Fill in circle #1 for true; #2 for false.) T F Most spinal reflexes are polysynaptic. T F Acetylcholine is cleared from a synapse by reuptake into the cell that secreted it. T F Spinal reflexes do not require a brain but they are faster if the brain is intact. T F Synaptic transmission takes about the same time in chemical and electrical synapses. Which of the following characterizes an electrical synapse but not a chemical synapse? A. Information is carried from cell to cell. 3- Eon—conducting channels are activated. C. The presynaptic cell contains a neurotransmitter. D. Information can move in both directions. which statement best describes the presynaptio (alpha motor) neuron at the neuromuscular junction? A. It is myelinated, has voltage—gated Na+ and Ca2+ channels and contains vesicles filled with acetylcholine. B. When exposed to an inhibitor it hyperpolarizes the post—synaptic membrane by increasing its K+ permeability. C. Many action potentials are required to release enough neurotransmitter to depolarize the post synaptic membrane. D. It has gap junctions by which it depolarizes the muscle cell directly. How is a dendrite best described? A. It is where an action potential is initiated. B. It is where synapses are formed with other neurons. C. It is where neurotransmitter is stored and released. D. It is where voltage-gated Ca2+ channels are found. How is the hillock (initial segment) of an axon best described? It is where an action potential is initiated. It is where synapses are formed with other neurons. It is where neurotransmitter is stored and released. It is where voltage—gated Ca2+ channels are found. UC‘IIUW Page 3 IVIHH—UJ—dlfllflj 1:): dd HI:HI_ | H bthNLI: LIHHHHT D'I’Jtiti-fil-lfil-dl |—'. 64/ 1E] 17. What do the drug curare and the disease myesthenia gravis have in common? A. Both prevent acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. B. Both cause persistent stimulation of muscle cells causing a rigor paralysis. C. Both prevent the binding of aoetylcholine to its receptor on the motor end plate. D. Both interfere with the synthesis of acetycholine in the presynaptic 1131.1an . 18. Which statement best characterizes the motor end plate of a muscle cell? A. It contains acetylcholine receptors linked to ion channels. B. It is associated with acetylcholinesterase. C. It is the site of initial depolarization of the muscle cell. D. All the above describe the motor end plate. 19. Which statement best describes synaptic transmission in the central nervous system? A. It may be either excitatory or inhibitory. B. Input from many synapses in needed to move a postsynaptic membrane potential to its threshold potential. C. Input from many cells may sum spatially or temporally at a postsynaptic neuron. D. All the above describe synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. 20. How is it that acetylcholine can stimulate one organ system and inhibit another? A. Acetylcholine stimulates cells at low concentrations but inhibits them at high concentrations. B. The response to acetylcholine depends upon the kind of receptor in the responding cell. C. Acetylchcline stimulates cells it there is no sympathetic (norepinephrine) input but inhibits cells if norepinephrine is present. D. Aoetycholine always stimulates cells. Bl. How do the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system differ? A. Aoetylcholine is a neurotransmitter in the parasympathetic nervous system but not in the sympathetic nervous system. B. Parasympathetic innervation is excitatory; sympathetic innervation is inhibitory. C. The two branches innervate different organ systems. Neurotransmitters in the two branches act at diffent receptors on effector cells. U Page 4 MfiR-EB-EEEE 15:22 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 P.85/1E 22. Body—wide responses to sudden stress or danger—the "fight or flight" reaction—are carried out by what means? A. activation of the sympathetic nervous system activation of the parasympathetic nervous system activation of both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems by central nervous system input to peripheral nervous systems UODEI 23. Which of the following is an adrenergic neurotransmitter? A. norepinephrine B. epinephrine C. acetylcholine D A and E but not C 24. What is the neurotransmitter at autonomic nervous system ganglia? A. norepinephrine E. epinephrine C. acetylcholine D A and B but not C 25. Which autonomic nervous system receptors are excitatory? A. muscarinic M1, adrenergic alphal, adrenergic Bl B muscarnic M2, adrenergic Hg C. muscariniic M1, adrenergic 32, adrenergic alpha; D adrenergic alphal, adrenergic E1, adrenergic 32 26. What is the primary function of the bones (ossicles) of the middle ear? A. They support the tympanic membrane and prevent its being damaged by loud sounds. B. They keep the middle ear open so that variations in air pressure (density) can reach the inner ear. C. They convert variations in air pressure (density) in the outer ear to variations in fluid pressure in the inner ear. D. They protect the inner ear by reducing the changes in air pressure that are transmitted to the cochlea. 27. What structure is made up of the basilar membrane, hair cells containing stereocilia and the tectorial membrane? What sensation is mediated by this structure? the ctolith organs; linear motion the ampula of the semicircular canals; angular motion the otolith organs: hearing the organ of Corti; hearing Cami” 28. What similarities are shared by the cochlea, the otolith organs and the semicircular canals? A All are located in the inner ear. B. All convey information to the brain by the same nerve track. C All depend on the stereocilia of hair cells for their function. D All the above Page 5 NHR—BE—EBBS 15:23 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 P.BE/lB 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. G477LIGTLE What is the function of the uareeie and the saccule? A. They sense angular motion. B. They sense tendon stretch and initiate the knee jerk reflex. C. They augment the sense of hearing mediated by the cochlea. D. They sense linear motion. The 1 of a sound is related to the 2 of the pressure wave that caused the sound while the 3 of a sound depends on the 4 of the pressure vibrations. A. 1 loudness, 2. amplitude, 3. pitch, 4. frequency B. 1 pitch, 2. amplitude, 3. loudness, 4. frequency C. 1. loudness, 2. pitch, 3. frequency, 4. amplitude D. 1 loudness, 2. velocity, 3. pitch, 4. amplitude With what receptors does acetyloholine interact? cholinergic receptors nicotinic receptors muscarinic receptors all the above receptors U Q m b What would be the effect of a toxin that prevented norepinephrine from binding to its receptors? The parasympathetic nervous system would not function. Spinal reflexes would be abolished. The autonomic nervous system would not function. The sympathetic nervous system would not function. U D m 3 Which agents are most active at adrenergic receptors? acetylcholine and glutamate acetyloholine and substance P epinephrine and norepinephrine glycine and glutamate U 0 m P What do excitatory and inhibitory post—synaptic potentials (EPSPs and IPSPs) have in common? A. They are caused by the same neurotransmitter. B. Many EPSPs or teens are needed to move membrane potential very far from resting potential. They are caused by occupation of the same receptors. Their summed input determines whether a skeletal muscle cell will depolarize or not. U n Page 6 NHR—BE—EBBS 35. 35. 37. 38. 39. 40. How does a single neuron integrate the simultaneous input from dozens 15:23 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 or hundreds of other neurons? A. B. C. D. By conducting action potentials on a one—to-one basis for each stimulating neuron. By summing graded excitatory and inhibitory potentials and conducting an action potential if the result reaches threshold. F.87/1B The single neuron won't respond in the presence of inhibitory input so an action potential results only when all input is excitatory. Because input from myelinated neurons arrives faster, the single neuron's output will depend on the ratio of myelinated to unmyelinated neurons causing the input. Sensory receptors ALWAYS U n m P respond best to one form of stimulus energy change stimulus energy into electrical energy are located on nerve endings are located on separate cells adjacent to nerve endings The type of sensation (modality) produced when a sensory receptor is stimulated depends on the A. E. C. D. energy form of the stimulus magnitude of receptor potentials frequency of action potentials to the sensory cortex region of the sensory cortex that receives the sensory input Sensory acuity (accuracy of locating a stimulus} depends on m'U 0 w W receptive field size receptive field overlap lateral inhibition convergence all of the above The code that sensory centers use to distinguish differences in stimulus strength is based on the frequency of action potentials frequency of receptor potentials size of action potentials size of receptor potentials All of the receptors associated with one sensory neuron are referred to as U n m P a compound receptor receptive field sensory unit sensory modality Page 7 NHR—BE—EBBS 15:23 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 P.88/1B 41. Indicate the INCORRECT statement about taste and smell. A. Both are mediated by chemoreceptors E. Both are important in food recognition and avoidance of harmful substances C. Both have sensory input to the thalamus D. Both respond to dissolved chemicals in the environment 42. The highly specialised area of the retina where visual acuity is greatest is called the A. optic disc B. fovea centralis C. choroid D. optic chiaem 43. The lens of the eye forms an image of a visible object on the retina which is A. inverted and reversed (left to right) B inverted and not reversed (left to right) C. upright and reversed (left to right) D upright and not reversed (left to right) 44. In order to keep the image of a visible object that is moving AWAY FROM the eye in focus on the retina, the lens must increase its refractive power curvature of the lens must decrease ciliary muscle must contract zonular fibers must become limp coma: 45. The iris controls the amount of light entering the eye accommodating reflexes shape of the lens ciliary muscle DOD-21:9 46. ALL photopigments consist of a chromophore and an opsin are equally sensitive to all wavelengths of visible light are most sensitive to green light . are irreversibly bleached by light '3an 47. The stimulation of a photoreceptor cell with light increases the concentration of cyclic GMP in the photoreceptor cell opens a sodium channel in the photoreceptor cell depolarises the photoreceptor cell membrane releases a neurotransmitter from the photoreceptor cell none of the above m c o m r Page a IVIHH—UJ—dlfllflj 1:): d4 HI:HI_ | H bthNLI: LIHHHHT D'I’Jtiti-fil-lfil-dl |—'. H‘j/ 1E] 43. 49. 50. The rod system is characterized by little or no convergence of rods on bipolar and ganglion cells a high concentration of rods in the fovea an ability to see objects in dim light an ability to discriminate color Uf‘JUJ'J’ The cone system is concentrated in the fovea achromatic extremely sensitive to light composed of a single type of photoreceptor cell DOD}? An object seen in the RIGHT half of the visual field A. forms an image on the RIGHT half of each retina and is perceived in the LEFT visual cortex 3. forms an image on the LEFT half of each retina and is perceived in the RIGHT viSual cortex C. forms an image on the RIGHT half of each retina and is perceived in the RIGHT visual cortex D. forms an image on the LEFT half of each retina and is perceived in the LEFT visual cortex Page 9 MfiR-EB-EEEE 15:24 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 P.1E/1E C16: mini-c r AL—MQQQ 5‘25 gm. __,P¢f?{$_/C"_¢QQ_§/L_2mfldzm___2_EX/¢7é’7 _/Q K431 _QQ__ “_B-w -.._-- ,_"%2..--_ ..___.l3...- _ -- _-- j_-.-.-_2;>.... ._.....__.-.._ _--_-2-'§’_ - _ _D .-. _ B _.___- ..-_-_..- _2-52'. .. - __- 13-- _ _ 25+ -_.. - -- 3O— -_ _ -____ JummH_———a_lw_nnrnnnllnv-H-r—v——-—lhllWHIIH—I'Hfl———-—-‘-——-'-d-—- m»- ‘ --uww-‘—- ::f _ _2.2- --a_-- --_--.., - 5 _-- __fi_fifl .. ‘22 _ WI) -... ---..__-..- __ 4e -...._..-._-- _ - - .- __ _-_ 222/ I4 .,______ --.-. ... _ __ __ -..i/.-L___- _.._ 12-2?) Pr _ TDTHL P.1B ...
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