Exam 2 & Key- Winter 2005 MPP3202

Exam 2 & Key- Winter 2005 MPP3202 -...

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Unformatted text preview: MRR-lS-EE‘IE‘IS 17:47 HEFlLTH SCIENCE LIBRRRY 5738841421 Pill/13 Physiology 3202 Second Exam, March 7, 2005 Name Student Number TA (or lab table number) Lab Day and time 1. PRINT your name, student number, TA (or lab table number) and lab day and time above. 2. On the front of the answer sheet tint our name toda A73 name or lab. 3. Fill in the circles that correspond to your name. Follow the directions using your last name first. 4. Fill in the circles that correspond to your student number. You need not fill in any other circles. 5. On the back of the answer sheet fill in the circle that corresponds to the one, best answer to each question. 6. Also mark your answers on the test itself. 7. Turn in both your exam and answer sheet. Results will be posted about noon tomorrow on the bulletin board outside the lab on the third floor and on the course web site under “Library Services”. An answer key will be posted in the same places when all students have taken the exam. MRR-lS-EEES 1. 17:47 HERLTH SCIENCE LIBRRRY 5738841421 An environmental change that is recognised by a sensory system is referred to as a l.sensation. 2. receptor potential. 3 . stimulus . 4.perception. An example of a compound receptor system is 1.taste. 2.touch. 3.smell. 4.pain. Indicate the correct sequence of events in sensory transduction. 1. stimulus —+ action potential —+ receptor potential u+ change in ion channel activity 2. stimulus —+ change in ion channel activity —+ action potential —+ receptor potential 3. stimulus —+ receptor potential —% action potential -+ change in ion channel activity 4. stimulus —+ change in ion channel activity —+ receptor potential —+ action potential P.B2/13 The type of sensory receptor that does not have an adequate stimulus is the l.touch/pressure receptor. 2.pain receptor. 3.warmth receptor. 4.cold receptor. 5.odor receptor. The only sense in which sensory information to the cortex does not pass through the thalamus is l.pain. 2.touch. 3.taste. 4.vision. 5.smell. MRR-lS-EE‘IE‘IS 17:48 HEFILTH SCIENCE LIBRRRY 5738841421 REE/13 6. The type of sensation produced by a sensory system depends on l.the properties of the sensory receptor. 2. where the sensory information is received in the cortex. 3. the frequency of action potentials to the sensory cortex. 4.None of the above are correct. 7. Stimulus intensity is encoded by the l.frequency of receptor potentials to the sensory cortex. 2. frequency of action potentials to the sensory cortex. 3.magnitude of receptor potentials to the sensory cortex. 4.magnitude of action potentials to the sensory cortex. 8. Sensory acuity is higher in areas of the body with l.greater densities of receptors. 2.small receptive fields. 3.over1apping receptive fields. 4.All of the above are correct. 9. The process that limits sensation to those sensory units in the center of a stimulated area is called 1.1ateral inhibition. 2.sensory adaptation. 3 . convergence . e.projection. 10. The cell that contains the receptors for taste is called a l.taste bud. 2 . papilla . 3.taste cell. 4.tastant. 11. The vascular tunic (layer) of the eye is called the l.sclera. 2.choroid. 3. retina. 4.cornea. MRR-lS-EE‘IE‘IS 17:48 HEFILTH SCIENCE LIBRRRY 5738841421 REM/13 12. The component that regulates the amount of light entering the eye is the 1-ciliary muscle. 2. iris. 3.cornea. 4.pigment cells. 5.zonular fibers. 13. The image of a Visible object formed by the cornea and lens of the eye 1. is inverted and reversed on the retina. 2. must fall on the same plane as the photoreceptors in order to be seen clearly. 3. is the result of the focusing of light rays from many points on a visible object. 4.All of the above are correct. 14. As a visible object moves closer to the eye 1.1ess refraction is required to keep the image on the retina. 2. accommodation reflexes cause relaxation of the ciliary muscle and increase tension on the zonular fibers attached to the lens. 3. the lens curvature is increased by accommodation. 4. the cornea accommodates. 15. A visual impairment in which near objects are seen clearly but far objects are blurred is called 1.hyperopia. 2. myopia. 3.presbyopia. 4. None of the above are correct. 16. Indicate the correct statement about photopigments. . All photopigments contain retinal. .All photopigments contain the same opsin. .Cones contain more photopigment than rods. . Retinal is the rod photopigment and opsin is the cone photopigment. IP-LLJIUH MRR-lS-EE‘IE‘IS 17:48 HEFILTH SCIENCE LIBRRRY 5738841421 REE/13 17. When suddenly moving from bright-light to dimalight Surroundings, vision is impaired for several minutes because the 1.cone photopigments have been bleached by prior exposure to bright light. 2. rod photopigments have been bleached by prior exposure to bright light. 3.pupi1s are constricted. 4. lens cannot acoommodate in dim light. 18. In an unstimulated photoreceptor 1.cyc1ic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels are low. 2. the cell membrane is hyperpolarized. 3. neurotransmitter release is inhibited. 4. an inward sodium current depolarizes the cell membrane. 19. The first neural cell in the visual pathway to produce action potentials following stimulation is the l.photoreceptor cell. 2. bipolar cell. 3.ganglion cell. 4. retinal cell. 20. Compared to the rod system, the cone system is characterized by a 1.high light sensitivity and high visual acuity. 2. high light sensitivity and low visual acuity. 3.1ow light sensitivity and low visual acuity. 4.low light sensitivity and high visual acuity. HHR—lS—EEEE ZI. 7.5. 17: 4a HEFILTH SCIENCE L I BRFIRY 5733341421 What controls the contraction of skeletal muscle? 1. Innervation by the sympathetic nervous system. 2. Innervation by the parasympathetic nervous system. 3. Innervation by alpha motor neurons. 4. Innervation by both branches of the autonomic nervous system. Which hollow organ is NOT made of smooth muscle? 1. the uterus 2. the urinary bladder 3. the heart 4. the gall bladder A textbook contains the following: “It is composed of a long, rigid heavy chain attached to a light chain (hinge) region which, in tum, is attached to a globular head group with binding sites for actin and ATP.” What is being described? 1. The tropomyosin-troponin complex bound to actin thin filaments. 2. the myosin molecule of thick filaments 3. Actin monomers that polymerize to form thin filaments. 4. The cross bridge that forms during sarcomere shortening. What structure is bounded by 2 lines? 1. a smooth muscle cell 2. a myofibril 3. a tendon 4. a sarcomere Which of the following characterizes the sliding filament theory of muscle shortening? 1. Muscle shortening occurs when thick and thin filaments slide past each other. 2. During shortening the lengths of thick and thin filaments don’t change. 3. During shortening the parts of the sarcomere where actin and myosin don‘t overlap become shorter. 4. All the above characterize the sliding filament theory of muscle shortening. P.86f13 MRR-lS-EEES 17:49 HERLTH SCIENCE LIBRRRY 5738841421 25 ‘ How are transverse (t) tubules in skeletal muscle cells best described? 137. ‘23: 1. They are parts of the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle cells which extend into each sarcomere and make physical contact with the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 2. They are parts of the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle cells which extend into each sarcomere so Ca2+ can enter the cell from outside when depolarization occurs. 3. They are tubules which connect one sarcomcre to another to coordinate contraction. 4. They are tubules which parallel the plasma membrane and take up Ca2+ fi'om outside the cell. In skeletal muscle, to what does Ca2+ bind to regulate contraction? 1. troponin 2. tropomyosin 3. actin 4. cahnodulin In smooth muscle, to what does Ca2+ bind to regulate contraction? 1. tropcnin 2. 'tropomyosin 3. actin 4. calmodulin Which of the following components of excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle are correctly ordered fi'om earliest to latest? 1. (332+ concentration in the sarcomere rises, depolarization of the plasma membrane, actin-myosin cross bridges form, troponin binds Ca2+ 2. myosin hydrolyzes ATP to energize cross bridges, Ca2+ is released fi'om the sarcoplasmic reticulum, tropomyosin moves to free actin’s myosin binding site, actin- myosin cross bridges form 3. the plasma membrane depolarizes, Ca2+ is released fi-om the sarcoplasmic reticulum, myo sin light chain is phosphorylated, cross bridge cycling generates force 4. Ca2+ is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, phosphorylatecl myosin binds to troponhncross bridge cycling generates force P.B7/13 IVIHH—lD—dUUD 1T: 45 HI:H|_ | H 23L, 1 IZNLJ: LlleHHT D'fjtiti4l4dl l" . lilti/ 1:: Shown below is the typical length—tension relationship for skeletal muscle. I )00 “Yo MAi-Umarm Fe ACE 5‘0 - i . we I " 1.00 IrVs Ree-flue Muscat? Let/v67? 30 . Which statement best describes the part of the curve labeled 1‘? 1. The overlap of thick and thin filaments is 2. Aetin filaments interfere with each other so more force can‘t be generated. 3. The overlap of thick and thin filaments is optimal. 4. Thick and thin filaments are being pulled apart. 5] I How can maximum force be generated in skeletal muscle? 1. By recruiting all the motor units in the muscle. 2. By increasing the intensity and duration of action potentials in the plasma membrane. 3. By stimulating so fiequently that there is no relaxation between stimuli. 4. By lowering the threshold potentials of all motor units. 3 Z , What is the functional consequence of having motor units with different thresholds? l. The muscle is capable of graded responses. 2. Fewer stimuli are needed to generate maximum force. 3. Action potentials vary in intensity and duration. 4. Force can be generated more quickly with higher thresholds. a, 3 _ Smooth muscle contains many more actin filaments for each myosin filament than does skeletal muscle. 1. true 2. false NHH—lD—dUUD 1?:45 HtHLIH bthNLt LlfiHHHT DTJfiU414dl 3 % What do skeletal and smooth muscle have in common? 35”. 36's. 37. 3‘3. 1. They have very similar length-tension relationships. 2. Actin-myosin cross bridges in both are formed in the same way. 3. In both, Ca2+ regulates the interaction of actin and myosin. 4. Both require the phosphorylation of myosin to generate force. Which of the following components of excitation-contraction coupling in smooth muscle are correctly ordered fi'om earliest to latest? 1. Ca2+ binds to calm0dulin, the Ca2+-calmodulin complex activates myosin light chain p kinase, myosin is phosphorylated, cross bridge cycling generates force 2. Ca2+ concentration in the cyto sol rises, myosin is activated, myosin light chain kinase is phosphorylated, aotin-«myosin cross bridges form 3. the Ca2+-caimodulin complex activates myosin, myosin light chain kinase phosphorylates actin, cross bridges form and generate force 4. 032+ activates myosin light chain kinase, actin is phosphorylated, myosin is phosphorylated, cross bridge cycling generates force What is the source of Ca2+ when its concentration rises in smooth muscle cells? 1. It enters from outside the cell. 2. It is released fi'om the sarcoplasmic reticulum by Ca2+ itself. 3. It is released fi-orn the sarcoplasmic reticulum by a second messenger. 4. All the above can increase Ca2+ in smooth muscle cells. Innervation of smooth muscle by the autonomic nervous system can cause contraction or relaxation. 1.true 2.fa.lse Because single unit smooth muscle cells are joined by gap junctions, recruitment (quantal summation) cannot occur and force can be graded only by temporal (wave) summation 1. true 2. false F.U5/13 HHR—lS—EEEE :3‘l. 42. 5am (a...) 17:49 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5733341421 How does the lengthstension relationship in smooth muscle differ from that in skeletal muscle? 1. There is very little difference in the two length-tension relationships. 2. Skeletal muscle can be stretched much more than smooth muscle and still generate force. 3. Smooth muscle can be stretched much more than skeletal muscle and still generate force. 4. Skeletal muscle can generate more force (as a % of maximum) at short muscle lengths than smooth muscle can. Which part of a skeletal muscle twitch is most changed by muscle fatigue? 1. the latent period 2. the contraction phase 3. the relaxation phase The elasticity (change in force/change in length) of a steel bar is much greater than the elasticity of a rubber band. 1. true 2. false Shown below is force developed during a skeletal muscle twitch in response to a stimulus delivered at the time indicated by the arrow labeled A. Which of the numbered arrows most closely corresponds to the tirne occupied by the absolute refi‘actory period? 200 I 2— H30 v a 6'0 1-00 ISO TIWE" (resent) Larrowl 2.31'1'0w2 3.arrow3 4. arrow 4 P.16f13 MRR-lS-EE‘IE‘IS 17': 5E! HEFILTH SCIENCE LIBRRRY 5738841421 F“. 11/13 Why is it that, when a skeletal muscle is stimulated while being stretched more and more, the active force developed eventually falls to zero? 1. The muscle becomes fatigued. 2. Ca2+ has too far to diffuse when the muscle is stretched too much. 3. Stretching causes actin and tropomyesinto dissociate. 4. Actin and myosin filaments don’t overlap so cross bridges can’t form MRR-lS-EE‘IE‘IS 17:58 HEFILTH SCIENCE LIBRRRY 5738841421 P.12/13 ,.. ' 4 - Spinal Reflexes: _ 1) consist of sfi'erent neurons, interneurous, and efferent neurons 2) do not require brain activity 3} are intersegmental or segmental 4) include all of the above ([5 - The Golgi Tendon Organ activates a spinal reflex that when the force of muscle Ebntraction is too high. I l) silences or inhibits afierent neurons 2) protects from muscle tearing 3) involves stimulation of the dura meter 4) inhibits both flexor and extensor groups (ILL, — The Stretch Reflex: 1) inhibits the extensor group of“ skeletal muscles 2) is monosynaptic 3) relies on nociceptors, or pain receptors 4) activates the contralateral leg m Stepping on a sharp nail while barefoot: l) stimulates both the flexor reflex and cross-extensor reflex 2) involves a snprasegmental reflex 3) only stimulates afl'erent and efferent neurons 4) does not hurt ll! - ‘ — Homeostasis ofheart rate, blood pressure, body tamper-attire, and osmolarity are controlled by which of the following: 1) parasympathetic nervous system 2) sympathetic nervous system 3) Somatic nervous systcru 4) 1 and 2 only if? ‘ - — The adrenal medulla is . 1) responsive to periods of “rest and digest" 2) a modified sympathetic ganglion that produces neurohormoncs 3) located in the grey matter of the spinal cord 4) part of the central nervous system fl ‘ — Pro—ganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system . l) originate in the thoracic and lumbar portions of the spinal cord 2) are short compared to those within the sympathetic nervous system 3) release acetylcholinc as the neurotransmitter 4) none of the show: MRR-lS-EEES 17:58 HERLTH SCIENCE LIBRRRY 5738841421 "WWWNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI P.13/13 ‘ 557-— 0‘: 1 (DGNICDG) 6 CDQQDGDCE 11 ®O@@@ 16 O®®GD® 21 (M90096) 25 .@@@® 2053535353 7530535353 12530535353 11530535353 22535305353 21053535353 11535351553 553535053 111535353053 15 535353053 ” ‘ 2353553535 2115535305 4®I®®® 5.®®®@ M®®I®® w®®l®© m®®@.@ m®0®®® 5®®®®O w®®Q®® w®0®®® mm®®t® fi®®@.@ m®®0®® m®®0®® w®®®0® n0®®®® w®0®®® m®®®®® m6®®®® 32 O®®G§® 37 O®®®C§> 42 O®@®@ 47 I®®®® 52 CD®®®® 57 CD®®®© m.®®®@ m0®®®® w®@@0@ m®®®0® m®®®®® m®®®®® 24 ®®OCDC§D 55CD®O®CSD 44®®®0® 49 ©0®®® 54 ®®®®® 55 @@@®@ fi.@®@@ m®®l®® w®0®®© m®®0®® fi®®®®® mfl®®®® ___fl___mm___fl____________m_____w______fl____m__ ma®®®® &®@®®® n®®®®® m®®®®® m®®®@®"%®@@@® u®®®®® W®®®®® nfi®®®® w®®®®© m®®®®® m6®®®® 511535353553 55 5353535353 135353535353 7115353535353 1135353535353 55 53535355 1114 535535353 59 5353535353 74553535353 19 535353535 345535335353 595353535353 55 ©®®®© 75(D@@®@ 75 CD®®®© 55 ®@®®® 55 CD®®®® 90 CDCECEDGDCEJ _m_£____m_a______fl___________flw___;_wfl____wfi_, 51 (DCECDCDG‘) 95 ®®®@@ 151 @®@@@ 105 ®@®@® 111 (95353506) 115 ®@@@@ 52 ®®@@® 57®©®®® 1o2®®®®® 157®®®®® 112 (NEEDED 117 CD®®CD© 53 ®@®@@ 98 ©®®®® 11335353535353 1055353535353 115 ®®C§D®© 115 ®®®®® 94®®@@@ 59 ®®®®C§J 154 ®®@®C§J 1os®®®®® 114 CD®®®® 115 ®®®®® %®@@@@ 1m®®®®® 1M®®®®® un®®®®® n5®®®®® 1m®®®®® _W—___—_____.—..__.—_.—....— '121 ©®®®® 125 ®@@@® 151 ®@@®® 155 GD®®®® 141 ®®®GD© 145®®®®® 1225535353553 127 5353535353 1112553535353 1315353535353 1425535535 1111553535355 125®®®®® 125®®@@@ 133CD®®®® 155 ®®®GD® 145 CD®®®® 145 (DQDG’DCEDCE 1245353521535) 129 535353535) 134 CD®®GJC53 135 ®®@®@ 144 ®®@®@ 149 @®@®® 125 635353095) 155 ®®®®® 135®®C®®§_145®®®@@ 145 CD®®®® $5 2®®®® TDTHL P.13 IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIllIIIIIIIIIIlllilillllllllIllllllIIIIII ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2012 for the course MPP 3202 taught by Professor Hurley during the Spring '08 term at Missouri (Mizzou).

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Exam 2 & Key- Winter 2005 MPP3202 -...

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