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Exam 3 & Key - Fall 2002 MPP3202

Exam 3 & Key - Fall 2002 MPP3202 - HPR-EE-EBEE...

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Unformatted text preview: HPR-EE-EBEE 18:58 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 P.81/1E Student name: student number: TA name: Thurs/Fri ELEMENTS OF PHYSIOLOGY Brd Examination November 6, 2002 Fill in the top of the question sheet and answer sheet. Include your TA'S name and lab day on the question sheet. We only need your name and TA's name on the top to the answer sheet. You don't need to fill in any circles on the front page. Circle the letter of the answer that best completes the statement on the question sheet and fill in the appropriate answer circle on the answer sheet. (A=1, 3:2, C23, D=4, E=5). Each answer is worth 2 points unless otherwise indicated, Turn in both the question and answer sheet. Staple the answer sheet to the back of the question sheet with the answer circles showing. 1. which of the following correctly indicates the sequence of blood flow through the heart and pulmonary circulation? A. left ventricle, pulmonary artery, pulmonary capillaries, pulmonary veins, right atrium E. left ventricle. aorta, pulmonary capillaries, pulmonary veins, right atrium C. right ventricle, pulmonary artery. pulmonary capillaries, pulmonary veins, left atrium D. right ventricle, aorta, pulmonary capillaries, pulmonary veins, left atrium 2. Action potentials are able to spread from myocardial cell to myocardial cell via A. tight junctions B. interneurons C. gap junctions D. afferent neurons 3. The main function of the aorta is to: A. expand and recoil in response to pressure changes originating from the left ventricle. B. exchange plasma between the blood and cells. C. serve as a very high area of resistance to floW. D. return blood directly to the right atrium. Page 1 HFH—Ud—dlfllflj 1'03 3‘3. HI:HI_ | H bthNLI: LIHHHHT D'I’Jtiti-fil-lfil-dl |—'. E]:/ llfl 4- The tricuapid valve is also known as a(n) A. atrioventricular valve B. aortic valve C. pulmonary valve D. mitral valve 5- The initial depolarization for initiating a heart beat originates in the A. AV node B. SA node C. CNS D. aorta 6. The purpose of AV node delay in the the transmission of electical activity through the heart is: A. to prevent the SA node from fatiguing. E- to allow the atria to contract while the ventricles are relaxed. C. to prolong the refractory period of ventricular myocytes. D. to speed action potential propagation rates through the Purkinje fibersv 7. In the heart, acetylcholine will A. directly decrease the force of contraction. E. decrease heart rate. C. cause AV node cells to depolarize. D. increase SA node firing. 8. What aspects of an SA node action potential differ trom a neuron action potential? A. There are no voltage—gated Na+ channels in SA node cells. B. The depolarization phase after threshold results from increased membrane permeability to Ca2+. C. There is no true resting membrane potential. D. There is a pacemaker potential, which spontaneously depolarizes the membrane. E. all of the above 9. Following a vagotomy (i.e.. severing of the vagus nerve) resting heart rate over time would: A. increase. E. dECI‘EESE. C. stay the same. 10. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a molecule that blocks voltage-gated Na+ channels. What will happen to the action potential of a myocardial contractile cell (i.e., cardiac myocyte) if TTX is applied to it? The pacemaker potential will depolarize faster. The myocyte will not depolarize and will not contract. The pacemaker potential will depolarize slower. The action potential will he unchanged from normal. UDUJD’ Page 2 HPR—BE—EBBS 12“ 5‘3 HEFILTH SCIENCE L I BRFIRY 5738841421 P . [213/ 1o 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 15. What is the cause of repolarization in all the excitable cells (i.e., neurons, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, a SA node cells) discussed in Physiology 201? A. increased permeability for Na+. E. decreased permeability for K+. C. increased permeability for K+ by opening voltage-gated K+ channels. D. increased permeability for Ca2+ by opening L—type Ca2+ channels. The absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle is A. shorter than the absolute refractory period in skeletal muscle. B the same length of time as the absolute refractory period in skeletal muscle- C. longer than the absolute refractory period in skeletal muscle. D. "whatever". A patient enters an emergency room after being stung by a scorpion. The toxin from this scorpion inoreases the release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during each heart beat. The direct resultant responses are: A. decreased heart contractility (force of contraction). 3. increased heart contractility and cardiac output. C. faster SA node depolarization. D. longer relative refractory period. E. a a b only What causes the left atrioventricular (AV) valve to close? A. Increased pressure in the left atrium that exceeds pressure in the left ventricle. 3- Increase pressure in the left ventricle that exceeds pressure in the left atrium. C. Wave of electrical activity through the left atrium. D- High resistance to blood flow through the left AV valve. The cause of the two main heart sounds (i.e., luh a dub) is: closing of the heart valves. reducing the amount of constriction on arteries of the arm. blood moving into the ventricles from the atria. Contraction of the atria. UCIEIID’ Which part of the cardiac cycle has the longest duration during rest? A. ventricular filling E. systole C. ejection D. diastole Page 3 HFH—Ud—dlfllflj l l 3 EH1] HI:HI_ | H ‘3'... 1 tNLI: |_ 1 HHHHT D'I’Jtiti-fil-lfil-dl |—‘ . 64/ 1E] 17. During ventricular filling: A. the AV valve is closed. E. the AV valve is open. C. the pressure in the atria is greater than the pressure in the ventricle D. the aortic semilunar valve is open E. h and c only 18. During ventricular filling, pressure is greatest in which of following: A. aorta B. left ventricle C. left atrium D. vena cava 19. During blood ejection, pressure is greatest in which of following: A. aorta B. left ventricle C. left atrium D. vena cava 20. Which of the following is not a reason that stroke volume decreases with increased afterload? A. Ventricles spend more time in phase 2 of the cardiac cycle. Aortic pressure exteeds ventricular pressure sooner during ejection. Ventricles spend more time in phase 3 of the cardiac cycle. Ventricles shorten at a slower velocity during ejection. UGDJ 21‘ In response to sympathetic innervation, which of the following effects on heart function would not he expected? A. Increase in heart rate, 3, Increase in contractility. C. A doubling of end diastolic volume. D. Faster depolarization of the SA node pacemaker potential. 22. WhiCh one of the following is not a factor in determining the flow rate of blood in a partiCular vessel: viscosity of the blood in the vessel. length of the blood vessel. radius of the vessel. thickness of the vessel wall. UCIIIJD’ For questions 23—25 characterise the cardiovascular changes during moderate exercise for each of the following as — increase A B — decrease C — no change 23. blood flow to brain 24. blood flow to heart and skeletal muscle Page 4 HPR-EE-EBEE 11:oc HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 P.85/lfl 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. cardiac output If you stand up suddenly what happens to your mean arterial pressure and what reflex adjustment takes place? A. increase; decrease heart rate B. increase: increase vasomotor tone C. decrease; increase heart rate D. decrease; decrease heart rate Bulk flow of solution in and out of the capillaries involves regulating extracellular fluid distribution pressure gradients regulating blood pressure interstitial colloid osmotic pressure all of the above a U Q m r The primary reason that a cardiac myocyte cannot be tetanized is: it has intercalated discs that contain gap junctions. it is striated. it has a single nucleus and considerable mitochondria. its long refractory period. U n w P The reason that cardiac muscle does not undergo quantal summation (i.e.r recruitment) is: A. the presence of gap junctions between myocytes. which causes all myoCytes to contract in near synchrony. B. myooytes have a long refractory period. C. myocytes are striated muscle. D. trigger Ca2+ causes Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The figure below represents a typical lead II electrocardiogram. atrial depolarization atrio-ventricular (AV) nodal delay ventricular depolarization atrial repolarization repolarization of ventricles m U 0 m y Page 5 HPR—BE—EBBS 1 1 i so HEFILTH SCIENCE L I BRFIRY 5738841421 P . [216/ 18 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 35. What event is initiated by the QRS complex? A. atrial filling B. atrial contraction C. systole D. diastole When the surface of the skin is touched simultaneously in two places, what determines whether a single sensation or two separate sensations are perceived? A. the size of the receptive field stimulated B. the number of neurons innervating the receptive field C. the number of receptors in each receptive field E- the touching of the skin in different receptive fields E. the pressure differences of the two stimuli Which reaction time is the longest? A. choice B. touch C. sight D. hearing In the plasma and interstitial fluid the principal cation is __1__ and the principal anion is __2 ; in the intracellular fluid the principal cation is 3__ and the principal anion is __4__. A. 1. potassium, 2. chloride, 3. sodium, 4. phosphate B. 1. sodium, 2. phosphate, 3. potassium, a. chloride C. l. potassium, 2. phosphate, 3. sodium, 4. chloride D. 1. sodium, 2. chloride, 3. potassium, 4. phosphate which of the following kidney functions occurs in the glomerulus? A. filtration E. reabsorption C. secretion D. excretion which of the following kidney functions are carried out by the peritubular capillaries? A. filtration and reabsorption B. reabsorption and secretion C. secretion and excretion D. all of the above Page 6 HPR-EE-EEEE 37. 38. 39. 4D. 41. 42. 43. 11:oo HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY 5738841421 P.87/1E which statement best describes the process of filtration in the kidney's nephrons? A. E. C. D. It is an active process requiring the expenditure of energy. It is the kidney function that has the greatest effect on the volume of urine excreted. It is a passive process depending on hydraulic and osmotic pressure differences. ' It occurs primarily in the distal tubule and collecting ducts of the nephron. Where in the nephron does most reabsorption of filtered material take plac A. B. C. D. e? the proximal convoluted tubule th th th e loop of Henle e distal convoluted tubule e collecting duct Are the following statements true or false? (Fill in circle 1 for true or circle 2 for false.) T F T F T F All the K+ in the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed in the kidney's proximal tubules but some K+ may be secreted in exchange for Na+ in the distal tubules. Except for the absence of proteins. the composition of fluid entering the proximal tubule from Bowman's capsule is very similar to the composition of plasma. Glucose is not found in urine because all of it is reabsorbed by the peritubular capillaries no matter how much is filtered- Which of the following best describes anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)? A. ADH increases the reabsorption of water in the nephron's distal tubules. B. A low level of ADH will be accompanied by a large volume of dilute urine. C. High Concentrations of ADH increase blood pressure by constricting blood vessels. D. All the above describe ADH. What property makes inulin especially useful for measuring glomerular filtration rate (GER)? A. B. It is metaboliZEd to form compounds that are readily filtered. It is neither secreted nor reabsorbed during its passage through the kidney. C. The difference between tubular secretion and tubular reabsorption of inulin is readily measured. D. The difference between inulin's concentration in urine and plasma equals GFR. Page 7 HFH—Ud—dlfllflj l l 3 It'll HI:HI_ | H ‘3'... 1 I:NL..I: |_ 1 HHHHT D'I’Jtiti-fil-lfil-dl |—‘ . Elti/ 1E] 44. 45. 46. 47. 43. Which of the following is NOT true of renin? A. An increase in its secretion will result in an increse in blood pressure. E. An increase in its secretion will result in an increase in aldosterone secretion. Its secretion is increased during hypotension or hemorrhage. G D. It increases reabsorption of K+ in the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Which statement best deseribes aldosterone? A. It increases Na+ reabsorption in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney. 3. It is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland when plasma osmolarity falls. C. It reduces reabsorption of Na+, K+ and water in the kidney‘s proximal tubules. D. It is useful in measuring renal plasma flow because it is cleared in one pass through the kidney. Which compound is secreted in response to high plasma Na+ concentration and promtes Na+ loss? renin aldosterone angiotensin II atrial natriuretic peptide U 0 m b The following description is found in a discussion of renal physiology: "Part of this structure is permeable to water and impermeable to Na*; the rest of the structure is impermeable to water but premeable to Na+." What structure is being described? A. the proximal tubule B. the loop of Henle C. the distal tubule D. the collecting duct What are the mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and the pulse pressure (PP) when systolic pressure is 115 mmHg and diastolic pressure is 70 mmHg? A. MABP = 92.5 mmHg; PP=415 mmHg B. MABP = 92.5 mmHg; PP=7O mmHg C. MAE? = 85 mmHg: PF: 45 mmHg D. MABP = 85 mmHg; PP: 185 mmHg Page 8 HFH—Ud—dlfllflj l l 3 It'll HI:HI_ | H ‘3'... 1 tNLI: |_ 1 HHHHT D'I’Jtiti-fil-lfil-dl |—‘ . H‘j/ 1E] 49. How are compounds such as glucose and amino acids reabsorbed in the kidney's proximal tubules? A. They are taken into tubular cells by ATP-requiring pumps and enter the interstitial fluid by passive diffusion. 3- They move with water by bulk flow between tubular cells into the interstitial fluid. C. They enter tubular cells by cotransport with Na+ down its concentration gradient and leave the cells by facilitated diffusion. D- Thar diffuse out of the proximal tubule and enter the peritubular capillaries by active transport. 50. What is the renal threshold of a compound? A. It is the concentration of the compound in the urine multiplied by the volume of urine produced in 24 hours. B. It is the concentration of the compound in renal tubular fluid at which reabsorption of the compound is stimulated. C. It is the concentration of a compound in plasma at which secretion of the compound into the renal tubule begins. D. It is the concentration of a compound in plasma at which the compound saturates its renal transporters and begins to appear in the urine- Page 9 HPR-EE-EEEE 11:82 HEHLTH SCIENCE LIBRHRY Answer Key for Test fl. 11/3/2002 N 0 . in ND . on Q—Bank_ @estm Correct An ' ”‘1 c?”— 29 124 29 17 14 168 29 14 29 13 14 170 14 151 14 159 14 153 14 160 14 165 14 152 29 121 14 167 14 166 29 122 29 127 29 14B 29 149 14 150 14 169 29 8 29 5'7 29 60 29 67 29 140 29 132 14 161 14 162 41 111 41 133 41 114 41 115 41 117 41 113 41 119 41 120 41 121 41 123 41 124 41 125 41 125 41 127 41 129 41 130 41 131 41 132 41 135 41 135 41 138 2 CV 3 Air” 4 3/ 11.31;?- 6 H" 7 B/ B Ew7 3 A 1 10 13V” 11 CV 12 a; 13 14 3/ 15 AF, -M 15 5'7 17 at: 18 A 13 13/ 20 of __1 21 of 22 11/ 33 0/ 34 Av’ 35___33:'_...,___ 25 CV 27 E; 23 23 A/ u 0"” 31" 'CV‘ ' 33 an" 33 N” 34 DV’ 35 AV 35 B? " 37 CW 33 3:: 39 1 11110:. 11 2V“ 4-2 “I: 43 B 11 n‘r/ 415—337,.— 46 13v, 47 B 43 CV” 43 CV’ 50 m" 3321' . Page 1 6 5738841421 P.1E/IB TDTHL P.1E ...
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